Sunday, December 14, 2008

Year 1900

January 10, 1900
The parishioners of Santa Cruz, Manila delivers a petition to Msgr. P. M Chapelle, Apostolic delegate of his Holiness, Pope Leo XIII, protesting the reassignment of friars to their parish and asked that native clergy be assigned instead. (Robinson, 330-331)

January 13, 1900
From Hongkong, Mariano Ponce writes to Dr. Sun Yat Sen exhorting him to continue working for the Filipino cause, assuring him that Filipinos will fight to the end and cites Aguinaldo's statement that “It may happen that we lose our hope of triumph in our present struggle, due to insufficiency of our war resources, but what we shall never lose is our hope of dying for the sake of our independence.” (Ponce, 463)

January ??, 1900
General Paciano Rizal, brother of national hero Dr. Jose, Rizal, who is operating in the province of Laguna, is captured by the Americans. (Foreman, 504)

March 10, 1900
Lt. Webster with a detachment of troops from the 42nd Infantry captures and destroys the Headquarters of the Morong Battalion of General Licerio Geronimo, taking a large number of rifles, and great store of ammunition and supplies.

March 16, 1900
In order to establish civil government in the Philippine Islands at the earliest possible time, President McKinley appoints a second Philippiine Commission composed of William H. Taft, D.C. Worcester, Luke E. Wright, Henry C. Ide, and Bernard Moses vested with power of exercising legislative function and establishing the court of justice. (Willis, 30; KalawM[1], 296)

March ??, 1900
The Chinese descent Filipino General Pawa, brother in law to Aguinaldo and operating in Southern Luzon, surrenders to the Americans. (Foreman, 504)

May ??, 1900
Pedro Paterno and Felipe Buencamino, cabinet members of the Philippine government, surrender to the Americans. They resolve to work for peace.

May 1, 1900
Isidoro de los Santos writes a long letter from Hongkong to Aguinaldo in Tagalog, telling him of the great progress of the diplomatic work of Apacible, del Pan and Sixto Lopez among the Anti-Imperialists groups in the United States. (KalawM[1], 251)

May 4, 1900
The New York Evening Post publishes an exchange of correspondence between an American officer, Major Parker, and General Miguel Malvar. The American officer urges Malvar to surrender so that he need not send troops to surround and capture him. But Malvar, while acknowledging the superiority of American arms, still hope that the United States will become acquainted with the true state of affairs in the country and grant Filipinos their independence. ( KalawM[1], 225-226)

May 6, 1900
General Pantaleon Garcia and Hilario Tal Placido are captured in Jaen, Nueva Ecija. Found in possession of Garcia is an order from Aguinaldo giving him dictatorial powers within his jurisdiction and extending to him judicial, political even life and death authority. (Magoon, 79-80)
[Placido is a Macabebe who would later played a key role in the expedition of U.S. General Frederick Funston to capture Aguinaldo].

May ??, 1900
Sergio Osmena, a young man of twenty two, starts the El Nuevo Dia, a daily with nationalistic tendencies, in the City of Cebu, Province of Cebu in association with Rafael Palma and Jaime C. de Veyra. (KalawM[1], 283)
[It must be remembered that at that time there was still some opposition in the field, for Aguinaldo had not yet been captured and several provinces were still in active guerrilla warfare. There was strict censorship of the press. The hardship suffered by the Cebu newspaper represented the life the nationalists had to live in those early years of American rule. "El Nuevo Dia", to quote Jaime C. De Veyra," was suspended twice; its offices were frequently searched by the military authorities; its personnel was threatened with banishment and all its equipment was to be thrown into the sea if peace was not restored in Cebu; but it firmly held to its policies at a time when some newspapermen at Iloilo were being subjected to what was known as the "water-cure", and in Manila the newspapermen were being imprisoned or, as in the case of Mabini and Gerona, exiled to Guam.]

June ??, 1900
From Toronto, Canada, where he stayed after travelling from Europe, Galiciano Apacible issues a pamphlet on behalf of the Central Filipino Committee entitled, To the American People an Appeal, proposing the following bases for American-Philippine relationship: (1) We shall indemnify the United States for 20 million pesos paid to Spain. (2) Perpetual and free commercial relations favorable to American interests and to the development of our country shall always unite us. (3) The United States shall have reasonable places in the Philippines for the establishment of coaling stations, outside the city. (4) We shall not permit monopolies of any kind in the Philippines and we shall give American citizens all conditions and guarantees necessary for those who want to be there. (5) We are ready to give you all that you want in our country provided it is just and does not constitute a violation of our political independence or the integrity of our land. (KalawM[1], 243)

June 3, 1900
The Taft Commission arrives in Manila and issues manifestos calling for peace.

June 16, 1900
General Riego de Dios, temporarily in charge of the Hongkong Junta, writes to the guerrilla commander in Bulacan Province, General Isidoro Torres, and urging him to have more endurance and constancy because the impression is that the Democratic party will win in the coming U.S. Presidential elections, and Democratic candidate William Jennings Bryan is firm for the independence of the Philippines. (KalawM[1], 250)

June 21, 1900
Gen Arthur McArthur, succeeding General Otis as military governor, releases Filipino political prisoners and issues a general amnesty to those Filipinos who would lay down their arms and within three months and take an oath of allegiance to the U.S. He offers to pay P30 for each gun surrendered. He also promises to extend to all Filpinos individual rights guaranteed by the Constitution of the U.S. Aguinaldo urges the Filipinos to reject McArthur's offer. American soldiers intensify campaign on the civilian population to reduce them to submission. (PIS-V1N09, 29; KalawM[1], 263-264))

June 28, 1900
General Pio del Pilar takes advantage of the amnesty and presented himself to the Americans. [He was, however, rearrested in September 6 for taking part in a conspiracy.] (Foreman, 505)

July ??, 1900
The Comite Nacional of the Filipinos is formed with the following objectives: To the end that each town may be able to guard the sacred interest of our country in these present circumstances; to be prepared to give the necessary assistance to the people carrying arms, who are struggling for our independence; and to assist in the political and diplomatic action of our Comite abroad and the successful prosecution of our cause by our foreign policy. The guidelines bears the signature of Teodoro Sandico, with the title, Superior Chief of the Republican Guard.

July ??, 1900
A petition to the United States congress signed by 2,006 'peaceful inhabitants' circulates in Manila, setting forth in eloquent phrases the passionate desire of the Filipinos for independence.

July 1, 1900
The civil guards arrested Filipino Generals Ricarte and Estrella in Manila while recruiting volunters for the revolution and boldly admit they have come to the city to effect an uprising. (KalawM[1], 280)

July 28, 1900
W.H. Taft, President of the Philippine Commission, writes to Pedro Paterno advising him of the withdrawal of the acceptance of invitation to a planned banquet to celebrate the proclamation of the general amnesty, on the basis he had information some of the speeches to be made by certain Filipinos will talk about independence under American protectorate, which the United States is not willing to grant to the Filipinos. (KalawM[1], 267; St. Claire, 184)

August 1, 1900
The headquarters of General Juan Cailles guarded by 100 insurgents is attacked by American troops; five insurgents were killed; seven large barracks burned; eight rifles, 5,500 rounds of ammunition, two revolvers, 1 officer's sabre, ten bolos, two American horses and some insurgents records were captured. (Chaffee, N-20)

August 3, 1900
Aguinaldo issues a counter proclamation urging the continuance of the war and offers rewards to Americans who will surrender their arms. (Foreman, 505)

August 10, 1900
Aguinaldo sends the following power of authority to Mabini: “I hereby deliver and confirm ample powers and prerogatives upon Apolinario Mabini to accept conferences and discuss conditions of peace under the basis of the recognition of Philippine independence. He should transmit to this office the results of the negotiations for the approval of, the government. Similarly, I authorize said Apolinario Mabini to choose the members which he may deem necessary for the carrying out of the present plan and he is to be the President of such a committee of members.” (KalawM[1], 260)
[Whatever attempt Buencamino may have made to induce Aguinaldo and the Congress to accept a program of autonomy, it seems that Aguinaldo remained true to the ideals of independence and determined not to agree to any understanding with America which was not based upon independence or the recognition of the future right to independence. He was undoubtedly encouraged to maintain this attitude by the Hongkong Junta. He respected Mabini more than anybody else because of Mabini's adherence to the same ideal. That was the reason why even when Mabini was in Manila, he was still sought by Aguinaldo in all diplomatic negotiations with the Americans.]

In a conference with Mr. Taft and General Bell, Mabini clearly saw the kind of government that the Americans intended to establish in the Philippines, and he made this comment: “I see that the Americans are decided in dragging us to the bitter alternative of dishonor or death. Now that this is so I shall try to behave as an honorable man who puts his duties and honor above everything else. Between dishonor and death, it is our duty to prefer the latter.” (KalawM[1], 261).

September 1, 1900
The second Philippine Commission begins exercising legislative functions.(KalawM[1], 297)

September 13, 1900
Colonel Maximo Abad and 37 of his men ambush a detachment of 51 American soldiers led by Captain Devereux Shields at Torrijos, Marinduque. The engagement lasts for several hours and after four Americans are killed and several, including Captain Shields, are wounded the Americans surrender. (Chaffee, N-28)
[Colonel Abad was previously under the command of General Licerio Geronimo of the Morong Brigade that defeated the Americans in the battle of San Mateo, Morong (Rizal) where American General Henry Lawton was killed. His presence in Marinduque must have been a new assignment.]

September 17, 1900
In the battle of Mabitac, Laguna, Filipino troops led by General Juan Cailles defeat an American force commanded by Colonel Benjamin F. Cheatham and assisted by the gunboat Florida. The Americans suffer 21 killed and 23 wounded. The Filipinos suffer 11 killed and 20 wounded, with Lt Col Fidel Sario among those killed. (Chaffee, N-28)

September 23, 1900
Apolinario Mabini is released from prisons and settles in Nagtahan, Manila. He continues to appeal to Filipinos to serve the country and suggests ways to win the war against the Americans.

November 12, 1900
Mabini writes Aguinaldo seeking advice on what position to take in negotiating with the Americans – sue for peace and recognize the sovereignty of the United States or continue to pursue the course of independence. (KalawM[1], 262)

November 22, 1900
Troops from United States 27th and 42nd Infantry capture the stronghold of General Licerio Geronimo in Montalban.

November ??, 1900
Macario Sakay, a Katipunero initiated by Bonifacio into the Katipunan in 1894 and incarcerated by the Spaniards after the discovery of the Katipunan, continues the futile struggle against the Americans. He leads a small remnants of the Filipino army in Southern Luzon that continually harass American outposts.

December 20, 1900
General MacArthur, in command of the American army, issues a proclamation warning the people that the laws of war would be strictly enforced and that all those who are found to be aiding the revolutionists will be dealt with severely. (KalawM[1], 280; Magoon, 78)
[Accordingly many persons were imprisoned, and the order helped in no small measure in the rapid pacification of the country. Not content with this measure, in order to show the severity of the new policy, General MacArthur asked authority from the War Department to deport leaders whose activities were in the opinion of the General not conducive to the pacification of the Islands.]

December 23, 1900
The Federal Party is organized in a meeting presided over by Florentino Torres, attended by prominent Filipinos, many of whom held high positions in the Aguinaldo government, among them T. H. Pardo de Tavera, Cayetano S. Arellano, Frank S. Bourns, Florentino Torres, Ambrosio Flores, Jose Ner, and Tomas G. Del Rosario, Arsenio Cruz Herrera, Felipe Buencamino, Ignacio Villamor, Teodoro Yangko, and Baldomero Roxas, which stands for acceptance of American sovereignty and the aspiration to make the Philippines a state of the American Union. (KalawM[1], 270)
[Mr. Taft found the idea of making the Philippines a member of the Union very unpopular among the Senators and Congressmen of the United States, and therefore did not encourage the Federal Party to pursue it further. The party eventually concentrated its efforts and succeeded in convincing various guerilla bands operating in the provinces to surrender to the Americans and take the oath of allegiance to the United States. Pardo de Tavera, Benito Legarda and Jose Luzurriaga were later appointed members of the Philippine Commission.]

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