Friday, December 12, 2008

Year 1901

January 7, 1901
Apolinario Mabini, for his refusal to take the oath of allegiance to the United States, is deported to the island of Guam by General Order No. 4 as one of the persons ”whose acts clearly demonstrate them to be favorers or sympathizers with the insurrection.”(St. Clair, 315)

January 8, 1901
Cecilio Sigismundo, a courier of Aguinaldo, is convinced to surrender to the Americans, providing them with important information on Aguinaldo's whereabouts and activities. (Herman, 133)

January 21, 1901
General MacArthur orders the deportation to the Island of Guam of thirty-two prisoners "whose overt act has clearly revealed them as in aid of or in sympathy with the insurrection, the guerrilla warfare by which it is being maintained, and whose continued residence in these islands would, in every essential regard be inimical to the pacification thereof." (KalawM[1], 281)

February ??, 1901
Panay is pacified.

March 8, 1901
Aguinaldo replies to the November 12, 1900 inquiry of Mabini on whether to take the position of pursuing independence or giving it up in the course of negotiations with the Americans, saying: “We, representing the aspirations of the popular masses, of those popular masses free from oppression and threats, continue and shall continue the Titanic struggle unto the end; it must be remarked that if a few have presented themselves to the enemy, there are many more who have set out to increase the ranks, as can easily be seen everywhere; a reaction in the towns has been very noticeable during the past few months." (KalawM[1], 263)

March 15, 1901
General Mariano Trias, a key figure and long time associate of Aguinaldo, surrenders to the Americans, which greatly improved the situation in the province of Cavite. (Chaffee, N-2)

March 21, 1901
A certain Japanese national, adjutant to General Licerio Geronimo, known only by the name Tomvilla, surrenders to the Americans. (Commission[1-1], 166)

March 23, 1901
Aguinaldo is captured by Gen. Frederick Funston, aided by Macabebe scouts led by Hilario Tal Placido, who once served the Filipino Republican Army under Gen. Antonio Luna. (Herman, 138)

March ??, 1901
The Filipino revolutionary agents in Europe meet upon the invitation of Sixto Lopez and propose to establish a Philippine cabinet to consist of the following: President, Sr. Eduardo Lete; Secretary of Foreign Affairs, Tomas Arejola; Secretary of the Interior, Sr. Isabelo de los Reyes; Secretary of Finance, Sr. Galicano Apacible; Secretary of Public Instruction, Senior Cayetano Lucban; Secreatry of War, Sr. Emiliano Riego de Dios. General Riego de Dios will direct the war operations from Singapore where he is located. The group is unable to carry out the project. (KalawM[1], 255-256)

March 29, 1901
Gen. Licerio Geronimo, commander of the 2nd and 3rd zone and Province of Morong, 6 staff and 46 men, surrender to Colonel J.M. Thompson of the 42nd Infantry of the United States. (Herman, 140)

April 1, 1901
Aguinaldo takes the oath of allegiance to the United States.

April 3, 1901
General Capistrano who is operating in northern Mindanao is captured in Cagayan de Oro. (Moses, 113)

April 13, 1901
General Martin Delgado, the chief Filipino guerrilla leader in Negros Occidental, is appointed governor of Iloilo province by the Philippine Commission on recommendation of the military governor. (Moses, 123)

April 19, 1901
Aguinaldo issues a manifesto urging the Filpinos to lay down their arms for the complete termination of hostilities.

May 1, 1901
Gen Manuel Tinio and Col Blas Villamor who lead the Filipino guerrillas in the Ilocos provinces surrender to American Gen. Franklin Bell.

May 19, 1901
Filipino General Urbano Lacuna and all his men, except the American negro renegade David Fagan who deserted from the U.S. army and joined the Filipino Republican Army, surrender to General Funston. (Chaffee, M4)

May 28, 1901
General Wade reports that about three hundred armed insurgents attack the town of Donsol, province of Sorsogon, and withdrew after two hours of fighting, and several insurgents believed wounded. (PIS-V1N10, 113)

June, ??, 1901
An executive order is issued by President McKinley, conferring the executive authority which had hitherto been exercised by the Military Government on the president of the Philippine Commission. (KalawM[1], 297)

June 24, 1901
Filipino General Juan Cailles, who operates in the province of Laguna, together with his men surrender with more than 300 rifles. (Chaffee, N-2)

July 4, 1901
Civil government is inaugurated by the Americans to replace military administration. William Howard Taft is appointed the first American Governor General.
[This date is significant in respect of the American consideration of the nature of the conflict. From the American standpoint war has terminated and the remaining Filipino forces opposing the Americans are labeled bandits, ladrones or tulisanes. This date also ushers in the Philippine Scouts, an organization which is the formal implementation by the Americans of the traditional colonialist's tactic extensively practiced by England and Spain to employ native troops to fight their own countrymen.]

July 6, 1901
Filipino General Vito Belarmino, who is operating in the province of Sorsogon, Luzon, surrenders with 32 officers, 215 guns and 3,000 rounds of ammunition. (PIS-Review, 29; Chaffee, N-3)

July 16, 1901
Filipino guerrilla leader Cabarro, who operates in the island of Mindoro, surrenders with 70 men in the town of Calapan. The town is also surrendered. (PIS-Review, 29)

July 18, 1901
The islands of Cebu, Bohol and province of Batangas are returned to U.S. military control because of continued and heightened insurrection. (PIS-Review, 29)

July 19, 1901
Catholic authorities in Manila state that they have no intention of withdrawing the friars from the Philippines. (PIS-Review, 29)

July 21, 1901
General Miguel Malvar, in a manifesto issued in Makiling, Laguna announced that he has taken over command of whole revolutionary effort and urge everyone to continue the struggle. (Artigas, 663)

July 24, 1901
Filipino Colonel Zurbano, who operates in Tayabas (now Quezon province) surrenders with 29 officers, 518 men, 243 rifles and 1OO bolos. (PIS-Review, 29; Chaffee, N3)

July 27, 1901
Calapan, the capital of Mindoro province, is taken by the Americans and the island is now being occupied and explored. The island has furnished a large amount of supplies to Malvar's forces; these supplies are now cut off and will be a serious to him. (Chaffee, N-6)

August 23, 1901
The first contingent of American teachers - 160 young girls and 400 young men arrive on a rainy day aboard the steamship Thomas.

September 1, 1901
The appointment of three Filipinos, namely: T.H. Pardo de Tavera, Benito Legarda, and Jose Luzuriaga, into the Taft Commission takes effect. (Willis, 29)

September 21, 1901
Rafael Palma, writing in El Renacimiento, a liberal paper which he purposely founded when he left Cebu, expresses in the editorial the repressed feelings and idealism of the Filipino nationalists. (KalawM[1], 284)

September 29, 1901
The people of the town of Balangiga in Samar island, led by Eugenio S. Daza, under direction by Filipino officers from the command of General Vicente Lukban, launches a sneak attack on the U.S. contingent stationed in the town and kill 48 American soldiers.
[The Americans retaliated with the infamous order of Brig Gen Jacob Smith of the United States army, who implements the so-called scorching of Samar and is quoted as saying: "I want no prisoners. I wish you to kill and burn: the more you kill and burn the better you will please me." He is later tried and found guilty of issuing instructions contrary to good order by a court martial in Manila but is handed a very light sentence.]

October 10, 1901
The Central Filipino Committee in Hong Kong issues a pamphlet entitled, A Petition to the President of the United States, essentially seeking the conclusion of peace in the Philippines, establishment of relations between the two countries, at the same time, satisfy the legitimate aspirations of the Filipino people.

October 14, 1901
The police force at Bauan, Province of Batangas, is disarmed, and the Chief of Police with several others are placed under arrest on charge of belonging to the Katipunan society and using their offices to obtain information for the Filipino resistance fighters. (PIS-Review, 69)

October 28, 1901
General Smith has notified all the presidentes and head men of the pueblos of the province of Samar that they must surrender all arms and turn over all persons implicated in the Balangiga massacre, before November 6, or else they will be deported to Guam, their villages destroyed, and their property confiscated. Ten gunboats are vigilantly patrolling the Samar coast. Most of the towns in the southern part of the island have already been destroyed. (PIS-Review, 71)

October 31, 1901
General Chaffee forwards the following despatch from General Hughes: "Insurrecto forces Cebu Island have come in, laid down arms in good faith, in obedience to demand of people for peace: 150 rifles, 8 brass pieces, 6o officers, 470 men." (PIS-Review, 71)

November ??, 1901
A proposal to submit a petition for statehood in the American Union is approved in the convention of the Federal Party.

November 3, 1901
The Philippine Commission has publicly presented the draft of the act against treason and sedition. Many prominent Filipinos are present. Vice-Governor Wright explains that the object of the bill is to prevent the arousing of the masses of the people, who are now gradually drifting to the pursuits of peace, but who are susceptible to inflammatory utterances, to deeds of violence, saying: "No excuse exists for secret political organizations. Their intent must be evil. No matter what may have been the opinion of the Filipinos regarding the sovereignty of the American Government, the fact remains that the Americans are here, and, moreover, here they intend to stay.">(PIS-Review, 71)
[The bill was opposed by Sabella Reyes, a Spanish journalist, who claimed that "nothing political is criminal," and that the death penalty should never be inflicted for political offences. Senior Buencamino objected to the bill on behalf of the Federal Party. Senior Bautista, at one time president of the so-called Filipino Congress, said that Sections of the proposed law had created a panic in Manila, that Spain had no such laws, that in his opinion private citizens ought not to be compelled to divulge matters within their knowledge, that the doctrine of treason ought to apply to officials only, and that the bill as drawn, opens a great opportunity to blackmail.]

November 9, 1901
Pedro Paterno expresses his opposition to statehood petition of the Federal Party.(KalawM[1], 280)
[In a letter to Mr. Taft, Paterno explained that the party platform does not say shall be or must be considered a state and the Philippines have purely special and individual interests; the Filipinos have their own life distinct from that of the Mother Country, and it is natural that they should also desire self-administration, self-government.]

November 11, 1901
Inspite of the blockade of Samar, General Vicente Lukban, the Filipino guerrilla leader in the Visayas, has sent a message to General Smith, declaring that he will not listen to negotiations for surrender, until all the Americans have withdrawn from the Grandara Valley. (PIS-Review, 72)

November 13, 1901
Diaz, the presidente of Tacloban, in the island of Leyte, is arrested on charge of being an agent of the Filipino Junta in Hongkong. (PIS-Review, 72)

The American gunboat Leyte has discovered a signal station working on the island of Leyte and communicating with Filipino guerrillas on the island of Samar by the flash light system. Three operators are arrested, and the station is destroyed. The men confess that many recruits had been sent from Leyte to Samar. (PIS-Review, 72)

November 13, 1901
Four hundred Filipino guerrilla fighters of Bauan, in the Batangas Province, are attacked by Captain Hartman's troop of the First Cavalry. Half of the guerrillas are armed with rifles and are in rifle pits preparing for an attack. The cavalry charge kills 16 of them, wounding 5 and capturing 9 rifles the rest of the guerrillas withdraw, the cavalry pursuing them. Two large boat loads of arms are reported to have been landed on the southern part of the Batangas peninsula. The arms are not yet located. (PIS-Review, 72)

November 16, 1901
An American company of infantry in the island of Samar is attacked by Filipino guerrillas, who quickly withdraw. (PIS-Review, 128)

Captain Hall reports that he has had four separate engagements with the Filipino guerrillas in the province of Batangas. Result of scouting: one Filipino officer and 50,000 pounds of rice captured. General Sumner also reports an attack upon 400 guerrillas on Wednesday last. Filipinos are routed. General Sumner says this is the most severe blow the Filipinos have suffered since he assumed command. (PIS-Review, 128)

November 21, 1901
Aguinaldo writes to General Chaffee, asking the latter's permission to go before the U.S. Congress, accompanied by eight friends (four of whom are prisoners at Guam, while the others are prominent residents in Manila), to express the desires of the Filipino people. (PIS-Review, 128)

November 29, 1901
American Brigadier-general Franklin Bell with a battalion of the Fifth Infantry left Manila to assume command of the troops in the province of Batangas. (PIS-Review, 129)

November ??, 1901
The Sedition Law is passed, which essentially decrees it to be unlawful for any person to advocate independence of the Philippine Islands or separation from the United States whether by peaceful or other means or to officially publish pamphlets advocating such independence or separation. (KalawM[1], 282)
[The planned organization of the nationalists party by members of the Federal Party who were opposed to statehood was scuttled because of the threat of arrest.]

December 6, 1901
General Chaffee issues orders for the closing of all ports in the provinces of Laguna and Batangas. The Quartermasters there will cease paying rents to the Filipinos for buildings used for military purposes, as it is known that a large proportion of the money so paid finds its way to the Filipino guerrillas in the shape of contributions; and General Chaffee intends that no more government funds shall find their way into the hands of the enemy. The reason for closing the ports is that too many supplies are found to be getting into the possession of the Filipino guerrillas. (PIS-Review, 129)

General Bell, in his report to Washington discloses the methods he will employ to rid Batangas, Laguna and Tayabas of rebels, thus: "I am now assemblying in the neighborhood of 2,500 men who will be used in columns of fifty men each. I take so large a command for the purpose of thoroughly searching each ravine, valley and mountain peak for insurgents and for food, expecting to destroy everything I find outside the towns. All able-bodied men will be killed or captured... These people need a thrashing to teach them some good common sense, and they should have it for the good of all concerned." (Storey, 120)

December 8, 1901
General Bell issues his Order No. 2 to all station commanders in his brigade implementing reconcentration in the provinces of Batangas, Laguna and Tayabas.

December 9, 1901
A military commission has sentenced the Filipino general, Isidoro Torres, to be hanged, after finding him guilty of ordering the assassination of an American corporal last October. The sentence of the commission is disapproved by General Chaffee. (PIS-Review, 129)

December 16, 1901
Filipino General Isidoro Torres is released and has expressed the highest regard for General Chaffee, and his appreciation that the supreme military power in the Philippines is in the hands of such a man, and says he is submissive to the existing conditions. (PIS-Review, 129)

December 18, 1901
The Provincial Secretary of Batangas province reported to Governor Taft that the mortality in Batangas due to war, pestilence, and famine has reduced to a little over 200,000 the more than 300,000 inhabitants which in former years the province had. (Blount, 395)

December 25, 1901
General Samson and all the other Filipino guerrilla officers on the island of Bohol have surrendered, with 28 cannon and 45 guns. (PIS-Review, 169)

December ??, 1901
Bohol and Cebu are pacified.

1 comment:

  1. A very Interesting time line. Although some of the dates do not show citations of origination, perhaps some of them are thought to be of common knowledge. Citations are always helpful. The Khaki citations should include more information such as full dating. Keep up the efforts of history including photos and research results!

    --Jeffe Ford