Tuesday, December 16, 2008

Year 1899

January ??, 1899
A provisional government is established in Misamis in the island of Mindanao by Jose Roa, but rival factions prevent the establishment of a similar government in Surigao and Cotabato. (Fernandez, 138-139)

January 1, 1899
Gen Vicente Lukban takes control of Leyte and later also Samar, Cebu and Bohol. (Fernandez, 133)

January 2, 1899
The cabinet of the Filipino government is reorganized and the absolutists, those who favor a strong presidential power, are appointed to positions. This group is led by Apolinario Mabini who wants absolute power in the executive, the President, in contrast to the constitutionalists, led by Pedro Paterno and Felipe Buencamino, who want supremacy of congress. (Fernandez, 105-106; Malcolm, 129)

January 4, 1899
General Otis withholds the original version of President McKinley's proclamation and issues a modified version censoring the words “sovereignty” and “cession”, assuring Filipinos the protection of individual rights and property and warning of consequences for all those who would opposed American military authority. (Blount, 164)
[General Otis learned too late that General Miller had already released in Iloilo the original version of the McKinley proclamation declaring American sovereignty over the whole of the Philippine islands, which was forwarded by the Ilonggos to Aguinaldo, allowing him to compare with the one that General Otis served in Manila.]

Apolinario Mabini, President of the cabinet and chief adviser of Aguinaldo, writes that the chief of the Philippine people has not made any agreement with the Government of the United States, but inspired by the same idea of destroying the sovereignty of Spain in these islands they have mutually assisted each other. (Spooner, 25)

January 5, 1899
In answer to General Otis proclamation, Aguinaldo issues a proclamation protesting the designation of General Otis as Governor of the Philippine Islands, and declares that “neither in Singapore, or in Hongkong, nor here in the Philippines did (he) ever agree, by word or in writing, to recognize the sovereignty of America.” (KalawM[1], 170-171) Aguinaldo concluded saying “Thus it is that my government is ready to open hostilities if the American troops attempt to take forcible possession of the Visayan Islands. I denounce these acts before the world, in order that the conscience of mankind may pronounce its infallible verdict as to who are the true oppressors of nations and the tormentors of human kind. Upon their heads be all the blood which may be shed.” (Magoon, 121)

Agoncillo's secretary, Sixto Lopez, writes the U.S. Secretary of State to accord Agoncillo an audience so he can present his credentials as envoy of the Revolutionary Government of the Philippines. Not even a letter of acknowledgment is received from the office of the Secretary. (KalawM[1], 233)

January 7, 1899
Dewey cables Washington stating that affairs in Manila are very disturbed and that a small civilian commission composed of men skilled in diplomacy should be sent to adjust differences. In a separate letter to Senator Proctor, Dewey expresses his fear that the situation is drifting towards conflict with the insurgents. (Dewey, 285)

January 9, 1899
Agueda Kahabagan is appointed General of the Filipino army. (Mp0080)
[The only female General in the roster of March, 1899.]

January 11, 1899
Another letter is sent to the U.S. Secretary of State, this time signed by Mr. Agoncillo himself saying: "In view of the present status of affairs in the Philippine Islands, and the fact that in the present strained position, the impetuous action of a Filipino or the overzeal of an American soldier, acts based on the impulse of the moment, may create a condition resulting in grievous loss of life as well as a memory that both nations might carry with them for years, I again urge upon you the necessity of early and frank communication between the representatives of the countries in question."(KalawM[1], 234)
[No answer to this letter was similarly received and trouble between Filipinos and Americans was looming ever larger and larger in Manila. Certain incidents strike panic in Manila - two American soldiers shot a dog; a native passing a U.S. sentry is shot dead. A child playing with an egg taken from a chinaman's store is shot dead by an American soldier, who thought the child was stealing from the chinaman.]

January 12, 1899
British businessmen representing significant business interest in the islands meet to consider working out a reconciliation between the Americans and Filipinos to avert possible war and destruction. (Sheridan, 141)

H. W. Bray, the interpreter who introduced Aguinaldo to U.S. Consul of Singapore writes to U.S. Senator Hoar stating: “I frankly state that the conditions under which Aguinaldo promised to cooperate with Dewey were independence under a protectorate. I am prepared to swear on this.” (Fernandez, 55)

January 14, 1899
An atmosphere of tension is in the air; rumors of general uprising of the natives are spreading, while insurgents are heard singing rebel songs. (Sheridan, 142)

January 16, 1899
El Grito del Pueblo publishes this statement: “Those who intend to reestablish the friars in the parishes here need have no doubt that, as Cicero invoked the sword of justice and fury of the gods upon all traitors, so will the provoked people invoke a justice of their own if a new tyranny of their hated enemies be imposed upon them;... but this surely will not happen, for the apostolic delegate must realize that this step would involve the converting into a rank imposition what they have looked forward to as their salvation from misfortune.” (Robinson, 329)

January 17, 1898
After several conferences between Filipino and American representatives, General Otis is persuaded to send to Washington a statement that the aspiration of the Filipino people is independence under certain restrictions, concluding that he “understand insurgents wish qualified independence under American protection.” (KalawM[1], 174)

January 21, 1899
The La Constitucion de la Republic Filipina is ratified by the Filipino congress in session. Aguinaldo proclaims that the constitution of the Filipino Republic is in effect and commands all the authorities, civil as well as military to keep it and cause it to be kept as it is the sovereign will of the Filipino people. (Fernandez, 108)

January 22, 1899
The Filipino Republic holds presidential election and Aguinaldo is elected President. (Sheridan, 148)

January 23, 1899
The formation of the Filipino Republic is inaugurated in an elaborate ceremony: military and civic parade in the main street of Malolos highlighted by the parade of 6,000 strong army led by General Isidoro Torres, speech of Aguinaldo and Pedro Paterno, reading of the constitution article by article and oath of allegiance of the army. A dinner banquet for 200 guests capped the day-long ceremonies. This event also highlights the formal inauguration of the Filipino Republican Army.

Aguinaldo formally informs General Otis that his government has formulated the constitution of the Philippine Republic. (KalawM[1], 176)

January 24, 1899
Mr. Agoncillo again addresses a communication to the U.S. Secretary of State reiterating his earlier fear that the massing of American troops in the Islands while no understanding had been reached between the two governments was fast creating an actual condition of war. (KalawM[1], 234; White, 129)
[Mr. Agoncillo's letters were completely ignored. Instead of hearing the case of the Filipinos through Agoncillo, their appointed representative, President McKinley created a commission which became known as the Shurmann Commission purportedly to gather information from the people of the islands and make recommendations for its future. Filipinos gave little credit to the appointment of the commission, claiming it was but a ruse of the Americans to gain time and strenghten their positions.]

January 25, 1899
Members of the United States Congress agree to vote on the ratification of the Treaty of Paris on Feburary 6, 1899. (KalawM[1], 235)

January 30, 1899
Agoncillo sends to the U.S. Secretary of State a memorial, with the request that it be presented to the Senate of the United States, the fight over the treaty being then at its height in the Senate.

[This document is perhaps the most interesting of all the state papers issued by the Filipino Junta on behalf of the Filipino people. It sets forth the history of the relations between the Americans and the Filipino and the grounds upon which the Philippine Republic based its claim for recognition. (KalawM[1], 234)]

February 2, 1899
The Washington Post publishes the journey made by Paymaster Wilcox and Cadet Sargent of Admiral Dewey's fleet, narrating details of their observation of the conditions of the towns and villages in the hinterlands of Luzon under the jurisdiction of the Filipino government. The narrative cites the peace and quiet that exist, and gives credit to the Aguinaldo government for its efficiency in organizing the local governments and maintaining order.

February 3, 1899
Agoncillo, probably alarmed by press attacks and statements that he might be arrested, flees to Montreal, Canada.

[His flight was taken as an indication that he knew the Filipinos will attack American positions the following day.](KalawM[1], 238)

Feburary 4, 1899
More American troops arrive.

The first shot that started the hostilities between Filipino and American armies is fired.

[Here is the official version still currently accepted and taught in Filipino schools: “On the evening of February 4, Private Grayson, of the First Nebraska Volunteers, was standing on guard at the American end of this bridge (the San Juan river bridge in Santa Mesa, Manila); there was no moon, and the darkness was exceedingly dense, when there suddenly appeared on the bridge a Filipino lieutenant and three privates, all strongly armed, who advanced in perfect step toward him. In obedience to his instructions from the Officer of the Guard, he called, 'Halt!' The summons was deliberately unheeded. Crouching somewhat, with guns in hands, they stealthily moved forward. Again Grayson cried out in a challenging tone, 'Halt!' This second warning was also ignored. The Filipinos moved even more rapidly toward him than before. They were now within a few feet of him. He fired. The Filipino lieutenant fell dead." (Coursey, 72-73)

Here is the unpublished, untaught, practically unknown other version: “On the 4th of February the towns of Santa Ana and San Juan del Monte were under the command of General Ricarte and Colonel San Miguel. On this day those two commanders abandoned their posts and went to a ball, leaving a major by the name of Gray, about 26 years of age, very young and without experience, in command of about 1,800 troops. They extended along the eastern part of the outskirts of Manila and were about half a mile distant from the American troops. We took the deposition of this major, who said that about 9 o'clock p.m. the sergeant of the guard came to his headquarters and told him that a party of American troops desired to cross their lines or were attempting to cross their lines, which was opposed by the Philippine guards. At this time a shot was heard; that he could not say for certain whether the shot came from the American command or from the men under his command, but he ran to the place from which the shot appeared to come, and seeing the American troops in a belligerent attitude gave an order to fire. That is the way the hostilities began.” (Buencamino, 3)]


February 5, 1899
Aguinaldo sends General Torres to ask General Otis for immediate cessation of hostilities and to assure him that the Filipino troops acted without authority from his government. Aguinaldo wants to establish a neutral zone between the two armies of a width that would be agreeable to General Otis, so that during the peace negotiations there would be no further danger of conflict between the two armies. Otis rejects the proposal and informs Aguinaldo that since the fighting has begun, “the Filipinos started the fight and would now have to fight it out." (Leonidas, 120)

[This rejection by Otis of Aguinaldo's ceasefire proposal was followed by an attack on the Filipino positions which lasted all day and resulted in the killing of some three thousand Filipino soldiers. The engagement was reported by Gen Otis to the War Department in Washington as one strictly defensive on the part of the insurgents and one of vigorous attack by the American forces.]

10:00 a.m. - Paco and Santa Ana fell into the hands of Americans.

Senor Escamillo, Aguinaldo's secretary and interpreter, who happened to be in Manila at the start of the conflict is taken prisoner by the Americans.

February 6, 1899
The Treaty of Paris barely passes the United States Congress by a vote of 57 to 27, or just one vote more than the necessary two-thirds required to ratify the treaty. (Everett, 209)

[McKinley and the imperialists in the U.S. Senate took advantage of the outbreak of the war to have the treaty ratified. The imperialists senators censor and misrepresent the conflict in the Philippines, and present it as a challenge by an inferior race to American honor, convincing formerly anti-ratification Senators to vote for ratification. As a result of this treaty Spain ceded the Philippine islands to the United States for a sum of $20 million. One important provision of the treaty is the exemption of the properties of the Catholic Church from the cession, a provision that would insure the continued monastic supremacy in the Philippines, which was the principal cause of the revolution].

February 8, 1899
Aguinaldo sends a commission to confer with General Otis. The commission meets the same reception previously accorded an agent and war was resumed by General Otis merrily and continues to the present day. (Leonidas, 120)

February 9, 1899
General Otis reports to the war department: “Aguinaldo now applies for a cessation of hostilities and conference; have declined to answer." (Leonidas, 194)

February 11, 1899
The Americans attack and capture Caloocan. (Blount, 263)

After spending weeks in the harbor waiting for the order to commence operations on the city of Iloilo General Marcus Miller disembarks his troops and captures the city with a few exchanges of cannon fire. The revolutionaries flee after setting the city aflame. (Foreman, 516; White, 296)

A law is passed by the Malolos Congress establishing the Philippine Women's Red Cross whose object is to engage in charitable work, especially to alleviate the condition of the poor and the suffering. In the meantime that the struggle for independence is still in progress, the association shall devote itself to be always with our (Filipino) troops who are wounded in the struggle, and to give relief to the sick in the hospital or elsewhere, be they friend or foe. (Guevara, 128)

February 18, 1899
The American flag is hoisted at Bacolod.. (Blount, 263)

February 18, 1899
Aguinaldo approves General Antonio Luna's plan to launch a counter attack on Manila which shall be accompanied by a concerted rising of the city population.

February 21, 1899
Colonel Francisco Roman and his troops, following the coordinated plan of attack move into Manila through Vitas, Tondo.

Mariano Ponce, the resident Filipino government representative in Japan, sends a scarf pin of a Philippine flag to Japanese Major General Fukushima explaining that “The blue, colour of the sky, means our hope in a future prosperity, through progress; the red means the blood with which we bought our independence; the white represents the peace which we wish for ours and foreign countries. The sun represents the progress, and some times means that the Philippine nation belongs to Oriental family, like Japan, Korea, etc., who bear also one sun in their flags. The three stars are the three great groups of islands composing the Archipelago, viz., the Luzon group, the Bisayas group and the Mindanao group. “ (Ponce, 281)

February 22, 1899
The concerted rising of the Tagalogs in Manila is attempted with the burning of houses and buildings in Tondo, to create chaos and disorder in the city, under orders from Filipino military officers, with specific instructions to massacre all Americans and Europeans in the city. The conflagration is put down and the attempt at creating disorder is suppressed and the city is placed under full control by U.S. military.

February 23, 1899
Filipino troops unsuccessfully launch counterattack to take Manila and retreat to Polo, Bulacan.
[The attacking force of 6,000 Filipino soldiers was composed of troops of General Antonio Luna from the north, General Licerio Geronimo from the east, General Pio del Pilar and Gen Miguel Malvar from the south, with the Kawit Brigade under Captain Pedro Janolin on reserve at La Loma. Filipino troops sweeped through Caloocan, driving the American defenders towards Pritil. As Filipino troops prepared to assault Manila from Caloocan, Admiral Dewey's fleet bombarded Filipino positions, exacting heavy casualties. But the attacking force pressed on, reached as far as Azcarraga (now Claro M. Recto Ave.) expecting to engage the enemy in hand-to hand combat, where Admiral Dewey's big guns will have no effect, and with fresh troops from the Kawit Brigade, would deal a death blow to the enemy. But Luna’s order to attack is ignored by Captain Janolin saying he only reports to Gen Aguinaldo. And so, the main body of the attacking force, physically spent and low on ammunition retreated.]

Gen Otis burns what remains of Tondo to clear the area and prevent its use as a staging area by the Filipino army.

Mariano Ponce writes to the editors of several Japanese newspapers saying that the claim about Filipino incapacity for self-government is unfounded and added that after having shed so much blood and spent so much money in a two years war for their independence, the Filipinos would, in no wise, accept the authority of the United States. “How should we give our independence over to the Americans, now that we have it in our hands? No! Never! it would be for us an unpardonable crime.” (Ponce, 283)

February ??, 1899
General Antonio Luna resigns in disgust over the lack of discipline in the Filipino army, but is prevalied upon by Aguinaldo to reconsider.
[Luna had previously disarmed Captain Pedro Janolin and his Kawit Brigade, but the men, who were from Aguinaldo's hometown, reported back to Gen Aguinaldo, who made them his bodyguards without General Luna's knowledge. By some stroke of fate, the same soldiers participated in the assassination of Gen Antonio Luna in Cabanatuan .]

March 4, 1899
The United States' Philippine commission headed by Jacob Gould Schurman, tasked with gathering information about the conditions in the Philippines and making recommendations to the U.S. President McKinley, arrives and assembles at Manila. (KalawM[2], 88)

March 4,1899
General Luna issues an order to the effect that any person who either directly or indirectly refuses to give aid to these headquarters in the prosecution of any military plan, or who in any manner whatever interferes with the execution of orders dictated for that purpose by the general in chief commanding operations upon Manila, will be immediately shot without trial. (Spooner, 29)

March 9, 1899
Agoncillo, having arrived in London, informs Apacible that he had lost his documents and everything else in a shipwreck on his way from America. He also assures him that while in Montreal his assassination had been attempted. (KalawM[1], 241)

March 20, 1899
The newspaper Manila Times says Dewey made several promises to Aguinaldo, including independence, for his cooperation with the Americans.

March 25, 1899
The Battle of Malabon is lost and the Filipinos retreats farther north.

March 28, 1899
General Luna puts up a valiant defense of Marilao, but is unable to halt the American advance.

March 31, 1899
Malolos, the Filipino government capital, is taken by the Americans and the main body Filipino troops together with the functionaries of the Malolos government retreat further northeast towards Nueva Ecija.

April 4, 1899
The U.S. Schurman commission issues a proclamation which is effectively a declaration of American sovereignty over the Philippines.

[The Filipinos rejected the proclamation, but sent Colonel Arguelles to meet with the commission to ask for a 3-month armistice to allow the Filipino people time to study the kind of government proposed by the Americans. His request for armistice was denied. Asked what form of government the Americans will established, Colonel Arguelles was told that the kind of government will depend upon the U.S. congress. Realizing that the commission is bent on imposing American rule, first and foremost, Colonel Arguelles returned to Aguinaldo and recommended the adoption of commissions' proclamation if only to secure temporary halt in hostilities. On orders of General Luna, he was rebuked, stripped of his rank and sent to jail for twelve months.] (Thomas, 116)

April 6, 1899
General Otis, in his report to the war department says: "It is not believed that the chief insurgent leaders wished to open hostilities at this time, as they were not completely prepared to assume the initiative." (Leonidas, 119)

April 7, 1899
Mariano Ponce writes to Mr. Sugiyama, editor of The Orient, a Japanese newspaper, decrying what he called “the impropriety of American imperialism” and affirms the capacity and reasonableness of the Filipino's protest. He further says that “We cannot trust in the generosity of the Americans; from them we received many insults and faithlessness; by sad experience we know that if we let our fate in their hands they will make us a mere colony.” (Ponce, 326)

April 10, 1899
General Ignacio Pawa, the Chinese-Filipino general, defends Santa Cruz, a city along Laguna de Bay, which also falls into American hands under General Lawton

April 11, 1899
Mariano Ponce writes to Mr. Yamagata, editor of Yorodzu Chuho, a Japanese newspaper in Tokyo intimating the shift to guerrilla warfare, saying: “The new plan of our army, in order to avoid too much blood to be poured, is to let Americans take many places, and attack them in guerrillas at several posts. When the Americans are scattered it will be easy to destroy them with little blood. This proceeding has always given result: my people is very skilful in this kind of struggle. They only accept advantageous battles.” (Ponce, 328)

April 12, 1899
Filipino soldiers in Baler, Tayabas (now Quezon) capture the crew and soldiers from the American gunboat Yorktown, that were dispatched to relieve the Spaniards holed up in the church convent and besieged by Filipinos.

April 14, 1899
U.S. army reinforcements arrive via the Sheridan having on board the 12th Infantry and a battalion of the 17th Infantry.

April 15, 1899
Mabini, acting as President of the Council of government, issues a manifesto questioning the authority of President McKinley and the Schurman commission to impose U.S. sovereignty in the Philippines, saying that the title of the United States to the Philippines is null and void because the people has not been consulted in it. He then urges the continuation of the struggle. (KalawM[1], 186-187)

April 16, 1899
Emilio Jacinto is killed at the battle of Majayjay, Laguna between American troops and Katipuneros that composed a separate fighting unit from the regular Philippine forces under Aguinaldo.

April 20, 1899
Filipino troops under the command of General Licerio Geronimo capture 140 of General Lawton's forces at the battle of Binangonan .

April 23, 1899
Filipino troops under the command of General Antonio Luna engage the Americans led by General Franklin Bell in the battle of Bagbag and Calumpit, Bulacan (referred by Americans as the Battle of Quingua) where Colonel Stotsenberg of the United States army is killed. The initial American assault is repelled by General Gregorio del Pilar, but the Filipinos come under heavy American artillery fire and are forced to abandon their trenches. General Luna sends an emissary to General Mascardo who was in Guagua to send reinforcements, but Mascardo refuses to obey and sends word that he will only take orders from Aguinaldo. Piqued by the insubordination of Mascardo, General Luna abandons the battlefield and marches his troops to Guagua to deal with General Mascardo. Aguinaldo intervenes and averts what could have been a disastrous shootout between two armies of the same flag.

April 26, 1899
American troops take Calumpit in the afternoon.

April 28, 1899
Aguinaldo sends Pedro Paterno to discuss peace with the Americans without General Luna's knowledge.

May ??, 1899
On account of insubordination that some Filipino officers displayed in the past, e.g., Captain Janolin and General Mascardo, General Luna creates his own organization in the Filipino army. He enlists Ilocanos and Macabebes of Pampanga who served under Spain. In the process, he creates undercurrents in the army because the Tagalogs, who comprise the majority of the soldiers, hate the Macabebes and mistrust the Ilocanos. General Luna prepares a plan to establish a stronghold in the Cordilleras. Rumors start to circulate that Gen Antonio Luna is planning a coup d’ etat to wrest total control of the government and the army.

May ??, 1899
After learning that Paterno talked to the Americans, General Luna orders the arrest of Paterno and his men. Without knowing that Aguinaldo previously authorized the mission of Paterno in talking to the Americans, General Luna presents the prisoners to Aguinaldo as traitors, but the latter only waited for Gen Luna to leave and releases the prisoners right away.

May 1, 1899
Hot fight near San Rafael, Bulacan.

May 2, 1899
Baliwag is captured by the Americans after a strong resistance put up by Generals Gregorio and Pio del Pilar with 800 men.

May 2, 1899
Conference between Gen Otis, the Philippine Commission, and some envoys of Aguinaldo - Major Manuel Arguelles, Lt. Jose Bernalto and Capt. Lorenzo Zialcita who spoke English, to discuss peace with honor. General Otis presents the American position that an unconditional surrender of the Filipino army is a prerequisite to a cease fire or armistice. The Filipino side refuses to accept this imposition without a clear indication that a government of their own under American protectorate will be respected by the Americans.

May 3, 1899
The members of the Mabini cabinet tell the President that whenever he is convinced "that other persons are better qualified to secure the realization of the happiness of the country," Aguinaldo could form a new cabinet. (KalawM[1], 190)

May 5, 1899
San Fernando Pampanga fell into American hands.

United States Secretary Hay cables the Schurman Commission authorizing it to propose that under the military power of the President, pending action of Congress, government of the Philippines shall consist of a Governor-General appointed by the President; Cabinet appointed by the Governor-General; a general advisory council elected by the people, saying further that the President earnestly desires the cessation of bloodshed, and that the people of the Philippines at an early date shall have the largest measure of self-government consistent with peace and good order. (KalawM[1], 188)

Mabini and General Luna are very much opposed to the protectorate proposal and Luna even orders the arrest of Arguelles, contending that to advocate autonomy and not independence is treason because the Philippines is ruled by a constitution and is an independent nation. (KalawM[1], 188)

May 6, 1899
The few remaining members of the Malolos Congress meet, decide upon a policy of conciliation with the United States and pass a resolution setting the President at liberty to appoint a new cabinet. In the words of one of the members, "it was unanimously resolved to enter into an understanding with General Otis, upon the basis of the proclamation of autonomy offered by the Schurman Commission." (KalawM[1], 190)

May 7, 1899
Aguinaldo formally notifies Mabini of his decision to appoint Paterno to form a new cabinet to replace the Mabini cabinet. Mabini graciously accepted the decision and wishes the new cabinet success. (KalawM[1], 190-191)

May 8, 1899
Filipino peace delegates enter General Lawton's lines at San Isidro. Mabini says in a letter: "I have just received a telegram from Sr. Paterno advising me that he is ready to accept an autonomy like that of Canada and asking for my opinion; and I answered him that I do not want any kind of autonomy for my country under the sovereignty of another nation, for otherwise we would be openly violating the constitution which they themselves have approved and which is still in force.” (KalawM[1], 192-193)

May 9, 1899
The Revolutionary Government changes its seat to Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija, and on the same day General Luna is appointed Assistant Secretary of War. (KalawM[1], 206)

May 17, 1899
San Isidro, the new capital, is taken by Americans under Gen Lawton.

May 20, 1899
Admiral Dewey departs from the Philippines.

The newspaper, La Independencia, publishes an interview with General Luna who is quoted as saying that the military – represented by Generals Tinio, Makabulos, Concepcion, Mascardo, Pilar and Torres are all against autonomy, together with majority of the civilian population. (KalawM[1], 207)

May 22, 1899
Aguinaldo sends peace commissioners composed of G. Gonzaga, Alberto Barretto, Gregorio del Pilar and Captain Zialcita, to the U.S. Philippine Commission to seek armistice so that the Hay proposal for an autonomy can be presented for approval by the Filipino people. (KalawM[1], 199)

General Otis cables Washington that he has denied the request for armistice by the Aguinaldo Commissioners. (KalawM[1], 199)

June ??, 1899
A strict censureship of the press is established and American press representatives in the Philippines are so disgusted with the misrepresentations of facts that they decide to send a cablegram of protest to the American press. (KalawM[1], 178)

June 2, 1899
Paterno, on behalf of the Council of Government, issues a manifesto recognizing the futility of the peace efforts with the Americans and exhorts all Filipinos to continue the struggle: "To war, then, beloved brothers, to war." (KalawM[1], 199)

June 4, 1899
Gen Luna receives advice from Aguinaldo for a meeting in Cabanatuan.

June 5, 1899
General Concepcion, known to be a supporter of General Luna, whose headquarters is at Angeles, Pampanga, receives a telegram at 2:30 p.m., from President Aguinaldo advising him that the President has taken charge of the direction of the operations in Central Luzon, that he is provisionally establishing his offices and headquarters at Bamban and that he is coming at 4:00 P. M. that same day, which meant that Luna has been relieved of the command. Aguinaldo arrives at the appointed hour and immediately begins investigation as to whether there are any plots against him. (KalawM[1], 209-210)

General Antonio Luna is treacherously killed at Cabanatuan by Filipino troops which Luna had disarmed for insubordination in a previous incident.
[Here is General Concepcion's version of the incident: “On the 2nd or 3rd of June Luna received a telegram from Aguinaldo asking him to form a new cabinet and asking him to see the President at Cabanatuan. Luna found out upon reaching Cabanatuan that the officer whom he had disarmed was in charge of the bodyguard of the president. Upon going up to the presidency he also found out that Aguinaldo had left for San Isidro. He was naturally disappointed at the apparent failure of the President to keep his appointment. Suddenly a revolver shot was heard from below. Luna walked downstairs to see what was the matter, but before he left the last steps he was stabbed in the back, then he and his aide Colonel Roman were fired upon and boloed, till they died."

Here is the official notification of the death of Luna made by the Revolutionary Government: CIRCULAR TO THE PROVINCIAL CHIEFS OF THIS ARCHIPELAGO REGARDING THE CAUSE OF THE DEATH OF GENERAL ANTONIO LUNA AND HIS AIDE, COLONEL FRANCISCO ROMAN. 1899 SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR TO PROVINCIAL CHIEFS, Cabanatuan, June 8, 1899. I regret to communicate to you that in consequence of a military collision in this town on the 5th instant, General Luna and Colonel Roman died, which event the Military court is investigating. (Signed) SEVERINO DE LAS ALAS Secretary.

Letter head; DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC Supplementary to my telegram of the 8th instant, making known the death of General Antonio Luna and of his aide, Colonel Francisco Roman, I must add that the causes of the deaths of these gentlemen were the insulting and assaulting of the sentinel and guard of the house of the Honorable President of the Republic, and slurs directed against the person of the latter, who was at the time absent in the field. Therefore, the sentinel and the guards being insulted by the said General and also kicked and cuffed by him and even having revolvers discharged against them, not only by the General but also by his aide Colonel Francisco Roman, and being still much more wrought up over the gross insults and threats of death which both made against the Honorable President, who, thank God, was absent in the field, the sentinel and other guards made use of their arms to repel the unjust aggression of General Luna and his aid, both of whom were instantly killed." (KalawM[1], 210)

Here is another version of the incident: "A Spanish officer, who had been a prisoner in the hands of the rebels and who was released by Aguinaldo, came through our lines to Manila. He claimed to have been a witness of the assassination of General Luna. According to his story the relations between the two Filipino leaders have been strained to the breaking point because of Luna's attempts to assume control of affairs, and the final rapture was forced by Aguinaldo issuing secret orders to the provincial governments. Luna thereupon notified Aguinaldo, demanding copies of the documents, and Aguinaldo replied curtly that Luna was a general of the army and that the civil government did not concern him. Luna, on opening the reply at his headquarters, in the presence of his officers, exclaimed hotly: 'He will be dead tomorrow.' One officer, who was friendly to Aguinaldo, hastened to warn him, and Aguinaldo called together his trusted officers, fellow townsmen of his, and stationed them around his house, with instructions to kill anyone attempting to enter, regardless of rank. Luna appeared the next day and saw Aguinaldo at the window. A member of the guard said: 'Aguinaldo has gone to inspect the troops.' Luna then exclaimed: 'You are a liar,' drew his revolver, struck the guard, and tried to force an entrance into the house. Before he could use his revolver one of the guards bayoneted him, another shot him in the back and others stabbed him. In all he had twenty wounds. Luna's aide-de-camp was killed in the same way. " (Everett, 469) With the death of Gen Luna, Aguinaldo orders the arrest of Luna's officers and disbands or reassigns their troops. After this incident, only the troops of Gen Gregorio del Pilar and Gen Manuel Tinio remained in Northern Luzon to face the Americans.

In Buencamino's testimony before the U. S. Senate, he declares as follows: “Luna's partisans say that Luna received a telegram from Aguinaldo, and Aguinaldo's partisans say that he sent no such telegram, because Aguinaldo was in search of Luna. I have personally attempted to find in our telegrams the ribbons of that day and of the previous day, but it has been impossible to find anything of them. General Bell, who covered all the parts where Luna and Aguinaldo were in the north, also desired to study that question, and he took all the telegrams and ribbons which he could find abandoned by the Filipinos in their flight. He says that he did not find anything which would throw any light on the subject, in order to discover how that coincidence took place, of Aguinaldo being at Luna's house, while Luna was being killed in the lower part of Aguinaldo's house, 75 miles from each other. … I do not know if Aguinaldo made any investigation, but at that time there was such secrecy that none of us could speak a word about it, fearing that we would suffer the same fate, and for that reason the Philippine insurrection morally died; there was no more confidence in anybody.” (Buencamino, 85-86)]


June 10, 1899
Generals Lawton, Wheaton and Ovenshine of the United States army with 4,500 men launch the southern campaign, advancing from San Pedro Makati and sweeping the country between Manila Bay and south.

June 13, 1899
The Filipinos fight the biggest battle - the Battle of Zapote, the same place where the Filipino revolutionaries defeated the Spaniards. 3,000 Filipino defenders engage 4,000 Americans supported by artillery and navy gunboats. The Filipino artillery piece is easily put out of commission by superior American firepower and Filipinos eventually withdraw with a loss of nearly a thousand lives.(KalawM[1], 217)

June 22, 1899
U. S. General Charles King writes to the Milwaukee Journal: "The capability of the Filipinos for self government cannot be doubted; such men as Arellano, Aguinaldo, and many others whom I might name, are highly educated; nine-tenths of the people read and write; all are skilled artisans in one way or another; they are industrious, frugal, temperate, and, given a fair start, could look out for themselves infinitely better than our people imagine. In my opinion they rank far higher than the Cubans or the uneducated negroes to whom we have given the right of suffrage.” (Leonidas, 129-130)

June 23, 1899
Agoncillo cables the Hongkong Junta admonishing it to constantly send circulars to Filipino commanders that they treat with respect the person and property of foreigners and rigidly observe the laws of war, publishing such circulars in the vicinity and sending them to all consuls in Manila. (Spooner, 27)

August ??, 1899
A new propaganda campaign is waged in the United States: Apacible is replaced by Riego de Dios who circulates a letter prepared by Felipe Buencamino to the American public, which includes documents written by Regidor and Aguinaldo attesting to the capability of Filipinos to self-government.

August 16, 1899
Angeles falls into American hands.

September 5, 1899
Apacible advises the Revolutionary Government that there were two ways open, one was to continue the struggle until Democratic candidate William Jennings Bryan is elected and the other is to deal directly with President McKinley. It is decided to try both ways. (KalawM[1], 242)

September 10, 1899
Apolinario Mabini is arrested by the Americans.

September 11, 1899
Marianco Ponce writes to Mr. Oshikawa inquiring about the result of the meeting with Mr. Imamoto, regarding the possibility that some wealthy Japanese make out a loan to the Philippine government to supply its present necessities, considering that it is now in a very critical situation. (Ponce, 402)
[The Japanese clandestinely made attempts to help the Filipinos. Arrangements were made for "retired" Japanese officers to go to the Philippines as advisors to the Filipino army. The officers, a relatively small contingent, did serve with the Filipino forces, but the attempt to ship arms to the islands was a complete failure. The Nunobiki Maru carrying 10,000 rifles, 6,000,000 rounds of ammunition, and other military supplies was sunk in a typhoon, and a second attempt was stymied by the threat of the effective American blockade. On the whole, the Japanese contributed little to the Filipinos. (Gates, 100-101) A Japanese national who was adjutant to General Licerio Geronimo known only by the name Tomvilla surrendered to the Americans on March 21, 1901.]

September 15, 1899
The Chicago Tribune publishes an interview purportedly with Mr. Schurmann of the Peace commission where an offer was made to Aguinaldo of a monthly stipend of $5,000 and the position of governor of the Tagalos in exchange for capitulation, which Aguinaldo allegedly rejected with scorn. (Pettigrew, 228)

September 23, 1899
Aguinaldo publishes his document Resena Veridica de la Revolucion Filipina or "A True Narrative of the Philippine Revolution", a pamphlet in which he asks the U.S. congress to recognize Filipino independence on moral, cultural and political grounds. He also advocates Filipinos to free American prisoners and return them to General Otis as a conciliatory gesture.

September 25, 1899
The Japanese ship Inaba Maru left London with a large shipment of ammunition addressed to American Consul, Hongkong. (St. Clair, 191)

September ??, 1899
General Jose Alejandrino delivers American prisoners of war to General Otis in the hope of obtaining concessions towards cessation of hostilities.

October 3, 1899
President McKinley writes a memorandum of his conversation with Admiral Dewey regarding the Philippines. The questions are written by the President in advance and Dewey's replies noted. Following is the transcription: “SELF GOVERNMENT, - are they capable? No and will not be for many, many years. The United States must control and supervise giving Filipinos participation as far as capable. WHAT DOES AGUINALDO REPRESENT in population and sentiment? He has no more than 40,000 followers of all kinds out of 8 or 10 millions WHAT IS OUR DUTY? Keep the islands permanently. Valuable in every way HOW MANY TROOPS NEEDED? 50000 HAVE WE SHIPS ENOUGH? Ought to send some more. Recommends that Brooklyn go and smaller vessels. SHOULD WE GIVE UP THE ISLANDS? Never – never.” (Olcott, 98)

October 15, 1899
Mrs. Aguinaldo speaks to soldiers assembled in Tarlac: "Were it not a shocking thing for us to wear trousers and to carry rifles…we [the women] members of the Philippine Red Cross - would aid you in the struggle and die by your side, for what would our lives amount to if we should still have to live in slavery? Though I am a weak woman, I can assure you that my prayer is [for] all the Filipino people."

October 16, 1899
As soon as he arrives in Hongkong after leaving Yokohama, Mariano Ponce writes his friend, Dr. Sun Yat Sen of China, to make arrangement for arms to be shipped to the Philippines to be repaid on return voyage of the vessel. (Ponce, 407)

October 17-18, 1899
The Anti-Imperialist League of the United States holds its national conference in Chicago presided over by Edwin Buritt Smith. (KalawM[1], 244)

October 19, 1899
Americans under General Lawton recaptures San Isidro.

November 1, 1899
Galicano Apacible, the head of the diplomatic corp of the Revolutionary government, travels via Europe to Toronto, Canada to meet with Sixto Lopez and Rafael del Pan with the view to working close with the Anti-Imperialist groups of the United States. (KalawM[1], 251)

November 2, 1899
An assembly of Filipino women in Tarlac is held in honor of national independence and some Americans - William Jennings Bryan, Dale Carnegie, Mark Twain, Senator Hoar and several other anti-imperialists. Bryan is the Democratic party presidential candidate who is contesting the re-election bid of Republican president William McKinley. Bryan's campaign platform opposes the annexation of the Philippines by the United States.

[McKinley won his re-election bid and the fate of the Philippines was sealed].

November 2, 1899
In a preliminary report to the President McKinley, the Schurman Commission speaks of the wealth of the islands, and advances the theory that its temporary occupation has practically committed the United States to a permanent or at least indefinite tenure as a trust for civilisation. It urges that the United States take the islands, otherwise some other nation will. The report also says, "Should our power by any fatality be withdrawn, the government of the Philippines would speedily lapse into anarchy, which would excuse, if it did not necessitate, the intervention of other powers and the eventual division of the islands among them.... The welfare of the Filipinos coincides with the dictates of national honour in forbidding our abandonment of the archipelago." (Willis, 18)

November 6, 1899
An autonomous self-government under American protection inaugurated at Bacolod at the request of the local population, reverts back to American administrative control after suffering from bureaucratic failure .

November 11, 1899
Filipino generals hold a council of war at Bayambang, Pangasinan on the Rio Agno and resolve to change strategy from conventional to guerrilla warfare. A recommendation is submitted to Aguinaldo to disperse the Filipino army and send the officers and men to their home provinces to constitute guerrilla units.

November 12, 1899
General Arthur McArthur's forces seize Tarlac, the new capital of the Filipino republic.

Aguinaldo issues an order dispersing the regular Filipino army and directing their reorganization into guerrilla units.

[The country was divided into provincial zones headed by a general, with sub-zones headed by lower-ranked officers. Among the major zones were Northern Luzon, under the command of General Manuel Tinio, with the Ilocos zones headed by Aglipay and Isabelo de los Reyes; Abra, by General Juan Villamor; the Central Luzon command under Pantaleon Garcia with zones in Nueva Ecija headed by Gen Urbano Lacuna, Bulacan, by Gen Pedro Tecson, Pampanga, by General Tomas Mascardo, Morong (now Rizal), by Gen Licerio Geronimo; the Southern Luzon command under Artemio Ricarte with zones in Laguna headed by General Juan Cailles, Cavite, by General Mariano Trias, Batangas, by General Miguel Malvar, Ambos Camarines, by General Ignacio Pawa; the Central Visayan command under Gen Vicente Lukban with zones in Samar and Leyte headed by General Guevara, Negros island, by General Juan Araneta, Panay island, by General Martin Delgado, assisted by Pablo Araneta, Bohol, by General Samson, and Cebu, by General Arcadio Maxilom, assisted by General Juan Climaco, and General Nicolas Capistrano in Cagayan de Oro. Due to the importance of civilian support, the Katipunan was reactivated to recruit members of guerrilla units who were enlisted under solemn rituals and oath as it was done during the time of Andres Bonifacio]

Gen Wheaton routs the Filipino defenders at San Jacinto Pangasinan.

A meeting of different groups in Cebu resolve to inform the American government, through the Provincial Board, of their objection to the assignment of seven friars saying that the people are opposed to the permanency of the friars, which might give rise to disorder, and for which reason it is necessary, and they so demand, that the said friars be immediately expelled. (Robinson, 331)

November 15, 1899
Aguinaldo, with a small party of ministers and officers, closely pursued by the cavalry of General Lawton of the United States army, slip past, through the mountains of Pozzorubio and Rosario, and escape to mountainous region of northern Luzon.

November 20, 1899
Felipe Buencamino, Secretary of State of the Philippine government, together with Aguinaldo's mother and child, are captured in Cabaruan, Pangasinan by the American troops. (Buencamino, 1 and 38)

November 23, 1899
From Hongkong, Mariano Ponce writes to Mr. W. H. Coard of the Canadian newspaper, The Gazette, constesting the claim of Mr. Schurmann that Aguinaldo represents only one tribe, the Tagalogs, citing the resistance offered by people of Cebu, Iloilo, Mindanao against the forcible take over by the Americans and the Philippine Congress participated in by representatives from various provinces. (Ponce, 437-443)

December 2, 1899
General Gregorio del Pilar, the famous boy general, commanding Aguinaldo’s rear guard, with 60 men makes a desperate stand at Tirad Pass to delay the advance of American troops who are in pursuit of Aguinaldo. A villager named Januario Galut reveals to the Americans an alternate path. The Filipino defenders are outflanked. Gregorio del Pilar and 52 of his men are killed.

[In his diary, Del Pilar wrote the night before: “The General (Aguinaldo) has given me the pick of all the men that can be spared and ordered me to defend the Pass. I realize what a terrible task has been given me. And yet I feel that this is the most glorious moment of my life. What I do is done for my beloved country. No sacrifice can be too great.”]

December 5, 1899
U.S. President McKinley addresses the United States congress, declares that Filipino forces deliberately attacked American troops, and that U.S. forces are needed to reduce the Filipinos to submission. He also pushes for American schools, courts and churches to be opened in the Philippines, and for industry, commerce, and agriculture to be fostered.

December 10, 1899
Apolinario Mabini, former member of the cabinet of the Malolos government is captured by the Americans.

December 14, 1899
Sixto Lopez, in an article published in the Independent asks: "Why not negotiate? If negotiation fails it will then be time enough for war. True, in the past our overtures of peace and good will have not been received in a hearty manner by the administration. But let that pass. It can not be undignified to do what honor and righteousness demand. Who will help the cause of peace? Could any cause be worthier the genius of the statesmen of a great nation?" (KalawM[1], 242)

December 19, 1899
Filipino troops under the command of General Licerio Geronimo defeats the Americans led by Gen Lawton in the battle of Paye, San Mateo, Morong (Rizal province), where the American general is killed.
[Colonel Maximo Abad, who would turn up another major Filipino victory over the Americans in the battle of Pulang Lupa, Torrijos, Marinduque, actively participated in this battle]

1 comment:

  1. What a great and easy to read diary of the revolution!

    ReplyDelete