Monday, December 22, 2008

Year 1896

January 01, 1896
In the election of officers of the Katipunan, the following are elected: Andres Bonifacio, President; Emilio Jacinto, Fiscal and Doctor; Vicente Molina, Treasurer; Pantaleon Torres, Herminigildo Reyes, Francisco Carreon, Jose Trinidad, Balbino Florentino and Aguedo del Rosario - Councilors. (St. Clair, 241)
[The Katipunan (or KKKNMANB, or Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalang, Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (Cruz, 1), known to leading Katipuneros of Cavite as Kamahalmahalan, Kataastaasang, Katipunan ...(Ricarte, 1 and Alvarez, 4)) was organized by Andres Bonifacio, Deodato Arellano, Valentin Diaz, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, and Jose Dizon in the afternoon of July 7, 1892, in a house on Calle Ilaya. (Tondo) on the same day the decree deportation of Rizal issued by Governor Despujol was published in the Gaceta. (Delos Santos, 38). The first supreme council was compossed of Deodato Arellano as President, Andres Bonifacio as Secretary, Valentin Diaz as Treasurer, Ladislao Diwa, Briccio Pantas and Teodoro Plata as Councilors. (St. Clair, 43) The primary purpose of the KKK was two-fold: (1) union of all Filipinos, and (2) separation from Spain by means of a revolution. Marcelo H. Del Pilar, an active propagandist in Spain, being the brother-in-law of Arellano , the first President, is credited with having directly inspired the establishment of the Katipunan. From his sanctuary in Madrid, where he edited the paper La Solidaridad, Del Pilar advised the creation of another association, similar to the Liga Filpina, but which to include laborers and persons of little or no education, but were directed by their chiefs and caciques in their localities, who were to form its enormous nucleus which should, at the proper time, give forth the cry of rebellion. (St. Clair, 38) In his letter to T. Zulueta of June 1, 1893, Del Pilar says: “If the Masons there pretend to make Masonry an organ of action for our ideals, they make a very bad mistake. What is needed is a special organization (the Katipunan?), devoted especially to the Filipino cause; and although its members, or some of them, may be Masons, they must not depend upon Masonry. Apparently this is to be done by the L (iga) F (ilipina).” (Delos Santos, 35)]

March 14, 1896
Emilio F. Aguinaldo and Raymundo Mata, prominent townsmen in Kawit, Cavite, are accompanied by Santiago Alvarez for initiation into the Katipunan in a house at Cervantes street (now Rizal Avenue) in the district of Bambang. (Alvarez, 241)

April 6, 1896
At his request, Aguinaldo, again accompanied by Alvarez, makes another trip to see Andres Bonifacio to learn more about the Katipunan. (Alvarez, 242)

April 10, 1896
The Supremo, Andres Bonifacio, together with Dr. Pio Valenzuela, Emilio Jacinto and Pantaleon Torres, arrive in the town of Noveleta, Cavite to establish a provincial council of the Katipunan, which came to be known as the Magdiwang Council with the following officers: Mariano Alvarez, president; Pascual Alvarez, secretary; Dionisio Alvarez, treasurer; Valentin Salud, prosecutor; Benito Alix, sergeant-at-arms; Nicolas Ricafrente, Adriano Guinto, Emeterio Malia, and Valeriano Aquino, directors. (Alvarez, 243)

At 5:00 o'clock in the afternoon, Bonifacio's group, accompanied by Santiago Alvarez, proceeds to the town of Kawit as guest of Aguinaldo and the establishment of a branch of the Katipunan is discussed. A great number enlists as members of the Katipunan. (Alvarez, 244)

April 12, 1896
Mariano Alvarez, in answer to inquiry, tells Baldomero Aguinaldo that a Katipunan balanghay, not a council, can be erstablished in Kawit, because only the Supremo can authorize the putting up of a council. Eventually, a council called Magdalo (named after the patron saint Magdalena) is established with Baldomero Aguinaldo as president, and Benigno Santi, as secretary. (Alvarez, 244)

April 14, 1896
Felipe Agoncillo, one of suspected six filibusters and separatists in Batangas, after being warned by his Manila friends of his impending deportation, flees to Kobe, Japan along with Ramon Atienza on board the Japanese mail steamer, Hiorine, hiding in a coal bunk. (St. Clair, 188)

May 3, 1896
A large meeting of the Katipunan is called by Bonifacio in the house of Valentin Cruz at the back of the Catholic Church in Pasig to ask the members if it is opportune time to rise up in arms, considering that the association is no longer a secret, having been confessed by three women - two in Tondo and one in Sta. Ana, and the Spanish authorities are already watching their movements. Among those in attendance are Aguinaldo and Santiago Alvarez from Cavite and Katipuneros from Santa Ana, Mandaluyong, San Pedro Makati, Pateros, Taguig, and Pasig. Aguinaldo says the organization is not ready to fight due to lack of arms. This is seconded by Benigno Santi and Santiago Alvarez. At this point, Aguinaldo proposes that the opinion of Dr. Jose Rizal, who is on exile in Mindanao, be sought, which is agreed by those attending. Whereupon Bonifacio assigns Dr. Pio Valenzuela to meet with Dr. Jose Rizal, who embarks on board S.S. Venus accompanied by Raymundo Mata, who is suffering from failing eyesight, on the pretext that they will seek medical help. (Alvarez, 246; St. Clair, 266; Ricarte, 8)

May ??, 1896
The Japanese cruiser Kongo visits the port of Manila, and Bonifacio, together with members of the Supreme Council of the Katipunan went to salute its commander in the upstairs of the Bazar Japones, situated in the plaza del Padre Moraga, and handed him a manuscript setting forth their desire for the aid and assistance of Japan towards the gaining of independence for the Philippines. They also offered him a picture and some native fruits. The commander receives them well and even regals them with iced drinks and coffee, but did not dare to accept the document, limiting himself to the taking of a copy of it and promising to transmit their desires to the Emperor. (St. Clair, 215)

May ??, 1896
Dr. Pio Valenzuela reports at once to Bonifacio on the result of his mission to Dr. Jose Rizal, who expresses opposition to the plan. Bonifacio and Valenzuela are tight-lipped on the opinion of Dr. Rizal and would not say anything about it, which raises the apprehension of the Katipuneros. (Alvarez, 14; St. Clair, 266)
[Rizal's unfavorable position against the planned rebellion was never announced by Bonifacio even to his close associates. On being pressed by Emilio Jacinto, Valenzuela finally let the cat out of the bag, with the result that many who had promised to contribute for the purchase of arms from Japan, refused to pay the amount promised. This breach of confidence caused the separation of Valenzuela from the Katipunan. (St. Clair, 266) As news spread that Rizal and the cultured element did not support the revolution, panic took possession of the Katipuneros and a stampede was imminent; but Bonifacio said: “Thunder, wherever did Dr. Rizal read that for a revolution you must first have arms and ships? Where did he read it?” Bonifacio said and repeated with such conviction, emphasis, and assurance that he dominated the irresolute and made them return to the fold. (Delos Santos, 58)]

June 4, 1896
Sensing that the time is ripe for action, Marcelo H. del Pilar leaves Madrid to join Mariano Ponce and the other Filipino patriots in Japan to help direct the revolution. However, on his way, he is suddenly taken ill and dies in a hospital in Barcelona. (St. Clair, 112)

July 5, 1896
The lieutenant of the Civil Guard of Pasig, Manuel Sityar, reports to Manila of preparations for an uprising by thousands of rebels in San Juan del Monte, San Felipe Neri, Pandacan, Marikina and Montalban who are taking oaths and signing documents with their own blood. (Cruz, 40; Sawyer, 84).
[Sityar, Mariano Queri and Jose Torres Bugallon were among several Spanish officers who later joined the Philippine Revolutionary Army and fought in the Philippine-American war that followed the Philippine revolution against Spain. Bugallon, who died in the Battle of Caloocan between American and Filipino forces, in whose honor a town in Pangasinan is named, was the right hand man of General Antonio Luna and was responsible for the formal military training of the Filipino army. Queri became the adjutant of General Ambrosio Flores.]

July 9, 1896
A reunion is celebrated in the house of Manuel Abella in Nueva Caceres, Ambos Camarines, and among those present are Gabriel Prieto, a native priest and brother of Tomas Prieto, Severino Diaz and others; it is in this reunion that the programme to kill all Spaniards in the province is decided.(St. Clair, 80)
[Tomas Prieto, of Nueva Caceres, who, whilst on board the S. S. Isarog, on the 20th of September 1896, testified in the presence of the captain of the ship and other witnesses that he had received 50 rifles, 10 of which he had given into the care of Manuel Abella, a millionaire of that province who was eventually executed for treason; the remainder he had distributed among other persons, 3 being place in the care of Severino Diaz, parish priest of the Cathedral of Nueva Caceres. As to their plans of action, he testified that the intention was to kill all the Spainards, the mentioned parish priest of the Cathedral, the coadjutor Inocencio and Severo Entrada, all natives, having promised to aid personally to secure the success of the affair. (St. Clair, 79-80)]

July 18, 1896
The Spaniard, La Font, the general manager of the printing shop, Diario de Manila, after sending home all employees, and seeking the assistance of two Spanish lieutenants, forces open the drawer of Apolonio Cruz, a Katipunero and treasurer of the Mahiganti chapter in Tondo, Manila, who had a fight earlier with a co-worker named Patino, a non-Katipunero, and finds paraphernalia, rubber stamp, little book, ledgers and roster of members of said Katipunan chapter. The guard, who is a Katipunero, hurriedly leaves the printing shop and sounds the alarm to this colleagues. (Alvarez, 251)
[The discovery is followed by arrest and torture of those listed in the roster, and 500 more were rounded up. Rumors spread that Bonifacio was captured and the infamous Juez de Cuchillo or Judge of the Knife had been established by the Spanish government to intimidate everyone. The great apprehensions and the worsening crisis only increased the number of enlistment into the Katipunan. (Alvarez, 17)]

July 28, 1896
Rizal is granted permission to go to Cuba as an army doctor in the Spanish service. (Foreman-1899, 533)

August 1, 1896
The Governor General receives from the Japanese Emperor some messages which had been directed to him by some 22,000 Filipinos in representation of the native inhabitants of these islands, and in which, after congratulating him for his triumphs over the Chinese Empire, asks his protection and shelter for this archipelago, and its annexation to the Japanese Empire. (St. Clair, 212)

August 5, 1896
Under orders of Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto disguises as a crew member of the launch Caridad ferrying Rizal from the ship S.S. Espana which brought him to Manila from his exile in Dapitan. Jacinto asks Rizal if he is being held against his will and offers to rescue him. Rizal refuses the offer and says that he knows what he is doing. (Cruz, 42)

August 9, 1896
Governor Blanco receives a telegraph from the Governor of Batangas that a discovery of arms and ammunitions and a red and blue flag with a sun at the center, surrounded by 7 stars, being the flag of a future Filipino republic, had been made in Taal in the house of the brother of Felipe Agoncillo. Orders are immediately given that Rizal should be placed on board the cruiser Castilla which was in Cavite. (Sawyer, 84;St. Clair, 104)
[Rizal was bound for Spain on board S.S. Colon when the insurrection broke out. He was immediately returned to Manila and put to trial on charge of being the chief organizer of the revolution. The trial ended and he was condemned to execution.]

August 13, 1896
A Spanish friar-curate in a town near Manila writes to the civil governor of Manila wherein he speaks of masons and separatists and, after asserting that what they need is a little blood-letting, advises the disappearance of two or three of the more prominent citizens. (Fernandez, 23)

August 17, 1896
Andres Bonifacio, in a meeting of various balanghay or units of the Katipunan held at Kangkong, Caloocan, agrees to begin the revolution by end of the month with an attack on the city of Manila. As a symbol of defiance against Spain, those in attendance tear their cedulas (poll tax certificates), as a sign of their intention not to return to their homes but fight with Bonifacio. (Cruz, 41; Fernandez, 23 )

August 19, 1896
Fray Mariano Gil, friar-curate of the suburb of Tondo, brings to the attention of the Spanish authorities the existence and activities of the the Katipunan from information he has received from Teodoro Patino, who had a previous fight with a Katipunero co-worker in a printing shop. Bonifacio and his close associates flee to neighboring Caloocan and stay in the house of his father-in-law, Adriano de Jesus (St. Clair, 53). Mass arrests, torture and exile follow. Spanish authorities place Manila and adjoining provinces under martial law. (KalawM[1], 75; Sawyer, 84)

August 21, 1896
Governor General Blanco telegrams the Colonial Minister, Sr. Castellana, saying: “Vast organization of secret societies discovered with anti-national tendencies. Twenty-two persons detained, among them the Gran Oriente (of Philippine Masonry) of the Philippines, and others of importance... Immediate action taken and special judge will be designated for greater activity in the proceedings.” (St. Clair, 7)

August 22, 1896
Emilio Jacinto writes to heads of all Katipunan chapters calling for a meeting at the village of Kangkong, Caloocan to discuss measures to be taken against the enemy and pool together the funds of the Katipunan. (Alvarez, 243)

August 23, 1896
Close to 300 men answer the call. For security reasons, Bonifacio decides to move the meeting to Bahay Toro in the house of Cabesang Melchora (Tandang Sora), who provides food to katipuneros, whose number has now increased to more than 500. Distribution is made of 100 bolos especially crafted in Meycauayan, Bulacan, brought by Apolonio Samson, a dozen revolvers and one hunting rifle owned by a certain Lieutenant Manuel. (Alvarez, 254; St. Clair, 50; 280)

August 24, 1896
More Katipuneros arrive, swelling the number to a thousand. Bonifacio convenes the meeting in the presence of Dr. Pio Valenzuela, Emilio Jacinto, Briccio Pantas, Enrique Pacheco, Ramon Bernardo, Pantaleon Torres, Francisco Carreon, Vicente Fernandez, Teodoro Plata. The following matters are agreed at the meeting:

(1) The uprising is to be started on midnight of Saturday, 29 August 1896.
(2) The revolutionary forces shall be organized under the command of the following designated brigadier generals: Aguedo del Rosario, Vicente Fernandez, Ramon Bernardo, and Gregorio Coronel, who are given full freedom to choose the necessary army chiefs.
(3) The planning of tactics for the taking of Manila at an agreed time by the four brigadier generals.
(4) To be in a state of alert so that the Katipunan forces could strike should the situation arise where the enemy is at a disadvantage. Thus, the uprising could be started earlier than the agreed time of midnight of 29 August 1896, should a favorable opportunity arise before that date. Everyone should steel himself and be resolute in the struggle that is imminent.
(5) The immediate objective is the capture of Manila. Troops of Generals Del Rosario, Fernandez, and Bernardo are to take the offensive and converge inside the walled city. General Del Rosario is to pass by way of Tondo; General Fernandez, by way of San Marcelino; and General Bernardo, by way of the rotunda. (Alvarez, 255)

August 25, 1896
A contingent of Spanish civil guards and carabineros arrive and the Katipuneros engage them in a brief encounter. Sensing they are outnumbered, the Spaniards retreat. (Alvarez, 255)

August 26, 1896
Early morning after breakfast and with provision for journey, Bonifacio orders a march to the upper part of Sampalukan. On approach to Pasong Tamo, enemy troops engage them in a fight and the Katipuneros scamper for safety. Many are shot dead, or wounded and are left behind, together with the flag and funds of the Katipunan. The group of Bonifacio escapes to a site between Balara and Krus-na-Ligas. Bonifacio sends Genaro de los Reyes to Mandaluyong to apprise the chapter of the encounter and collect donations of food and clothes. (Alvarez, 256; Ricarte, 5; Fernandez, 23)

August 27, 1896
De los Reyes finds Bonifacio and his aides in a place called Ulat, near Balara, and learns that Bonifacio plans to go to Mount Tupasi where he will build fortifications for defense in case of encirclement. De Los Reyes and Jacinto object to the plan claiming that the Mandaluyong council is already preparing for the planned uprising and Bonifacio is needed to lead them. Eventually, Bonifacio is convinced to go to Mandaluyong with his men. (Alvarez, 258)

August 28, 1896
The Katipuneros of Mandaluyong council, headed by Laureano Gonzales, are busy preparing for the uprising. Santolan chapter of Valentin Cruz expects 15 Remington guns from civil guards who are Katipunan members and will be defecting anytime; the Sumikat chapter of Guillermo Vasquez has only bolos, daggers and spears, one rifle and one Remington gun; Liwanag chapter of Liborio de Guzman has only bladed weapons and two Remington guns; Manalo chapter of Adriano Gonzales has one firelock aside from the usual bladed ones; Sinukuan chapter headed by a certain Nonong has arms no better than the others. Additional weapons are secured by smuggling out of the Mandaluyong friar estate house three guns and ammunition, one firelock, two Remingtons, one rifle and bullets. Bonifacio with a thousand men gather at Hagdang Bato in Mandaluyong and the guns are distributed to those capable of handling them. Written instructions are dispatched by Jacinto to the Katipunan councils of Manila, Cavite and Nueva Ecija. (Alvarez, 260-261; St. Clair, 51)

The Magdiwang council in Cavite is similarly preparing for the planned uprising. Mariano Alvarez, who is the Municipal Captain of the town of Noveleta, seeks the help of two well-known Cavite outlaws, the brothers Hipolito and Hermogenes Sakilayan, to enlist more men and collect more weapons., (Alvarez, 34)

August 29, 1896
The first battle cry of the Katipunan coincides with the pealing of the church bell at 9:00 o'clock in the evening with Bonifacio's order to advance. The Mandaluyong town hall is easily captured, then Pandacan an hour later. Santa Mesa, San Juan and then Manila are next targets. General Ramon Bernardo deploys his men for Santa Mesa assault, awaiting Bonifacio and his men who are to come from San Juan del Monte. Bonifacio easily overpowers a few civil guards, but in his excitement fails to release a baloon or fire a cannon shot to alert the Katipuneros of Cavite and adjoining provinces as agreed upon. Dismayed at the turn of events, Bonifacio orders his men to retreat to Balara to rest and recover their strength, and carry out the aborted attack on Manila the following day. (Alvarez, 29)

With no signal from Manila, the Katipuneros of the Magdiwang council express the desire to go ahead and attack the Spanish garrison with or without action from the Manila Katipunan, but Mariano Alvarez cautions them to be patient and refrain from any precipitous conduct. (Alvarez, 34)

August 30, 1896
General Bernardo and his men, while awaiting the group of Bonifacio, are attacked early morning by Spanish troops who were watching their movements the night before. The Katipuneros fight bravely and even chase the Spaniards down the Santa Mesa river, where they are met by another group of Katipuneros led by a certain Ricardo Losada. The battle ended at eight o'clock in the morning with the Spaniards retreating, both sides suffering heavy casualties. After learning of the battle, Bonifacio decides to join General Bernardo. As they pass by the village called Ermitano, they are fired upon from inside the reservoir compound located at place called Vista Alegre. Despite the fusillade, they advance toward the enemy stronghold that they knew contain a powder cache. But the retreating Spanish troops that previoulsy engaged the troops of General Bernardo's arrive and encircle the Katipuneros, resulting in heavy loss to the latter. Bonifacio and several survivors manage to escape and regroup at Balara. (Alvarez, 50-51; Sawyer, 84; St. Clair, 51)
[Among those captured were Sancho Valenzuela who, together with three other comrades were executed by firing squad at the campo de Bagumbayan at the Luneta. Licerio Geronimo, who would become one of the most able generals of the Filipino-American war, was one of the active participants in this battle.]

Governor General Blanco issues a proclamation to the effect that rebels who will present themselves to authorities within 48 hours after the publication of the proclamation shall be exempt from punishment for rebellion, excepting the chiefs and all those who relapse into other crimes.
[Among those who took advantage of the amnesty was Dr. Pio Valenzuela.] (St. Clair, 271)

Mariano Alvarez is besieged by endless delegation wanting to start the uprising in Cavite, but he advises them to abide by the decision of a coordinated rebellion. (Alvarez, 34)

August 31, 1896
Failing to receive any signal or news from Katipuneros in Manila, a decision is made by Mariano Alvarez to start the revolution in Cavite at 2:00 o'clock in the afternoon after a meeting of leaders which included Artemio Ricarte. In the ensuing attack, the municipal building and the Spanish garrison in the town of Noveleta are captured together with twenty-eight guns. Aguinaldo is informed of the start of the uprising and the initial victory through an emissary (Bernabe Diaz) but he remained silent when told that Mariano Alvarez urges him to take action now. (Alvarez, 38-39;Sawyer, 85)

Governor Blanco declares martial law in the neighboring provinces of Manila, Bulacan, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Laguna, Cavite and Batangas where signs of impending revolt manifested. (Fernandez, 24)
[During this period 169 persons who were suspected of disaffection were thrust into the dungeon of Fort Santiago which lies below water level, and the small air hole was firmly closed. Fifty nine of the prisoners were found dead the following morning and the rest were herded to Luneta and shot. (Younghusband, 15;Fernandez, 26)]

September 1, 1896
Aguinaldo did not immediately start the revolution in Kawit, but goes to see the Governor to ask for six soldiers to secure the town from the outlaw San Mateo, but his request is turned down. Realizing that there is no stopping on the rebellion that has began, he merges his group with the group of Tomas Mascardo and Candido Tirona, renounces his position a capitan municipal of Kawit, and invites other capitan municipales of Cavite to commence the revolution. (Alvarez, 40-41; Ricarte, 13-14)

At midnight, a mass meeting by the Magdiwang council is held and the following are unanimously approved:

(1)The Magdiwang council is to be the highest organ to direct the revolution.
(2)The following council officers are chosen:
President – Mr. Mariano Alvarez, concurrently secretary of Noveleta municipality;
Secretary of the Treasury – Mr. Diego Mojica;
Secretary of Justice – Mr. Mariano C. Trias;
Secretary of Welfare – Mr. Emiliano Riego de Dios;
Secretary of the Interior – Mr. Cornelio Magsarili;
Captain General (Commander-in-chief) – Mr. Santiago Alvarez
Lieutenant General (Deputy Commander-in-chief) – Mr. Artemio Ricarte (Alvarez, 42)

September 2 1896
Aguinaldo and his men attack the civil guards holed up in the parish house. The occupants flee to the friar estate house in Imus. The battle ends as the priest in charge of the estate house comes out with a revolver in hand and engages the Katipuneros to a shooting match. The priest falls dead on the paddy dike. (Alvarez, 46-47).

September 3, 1896
Spanish troops led by Commandant Aguirre that marched through Paranaque and Las Pinas, and took Bacoor without a fight, are defeated by Aguinaldo in the battle of Imus and are chased all the way back to the bridge of Las Pinas. (Ricarte, 20-21)

A large mass of rebels led by Mariano Llanera besiege the capital of Nueva Ecija, but are repulsed by the Civil Guards with the arrival of reenforcement from Manila. (St. Clair, 52)

September 4 1896
The captured leaders of the assault of San Juan del Monte arsenal, among them Sancho Valenzuela and Modesto Sarmiento, are executed at the Luneta. Unlike his three comrades who drop dead after the first volley, Valenzuela stays erect, kneeling and needed a second volley to finish him. ( Foreman, 369; Sawyer, 85)

September 9, 1896
Katipuneros attack San Roque which is close to the town of Cavite, and burn part of it. (Sawyer, 85)

September 12, 1896
Thirteen prominent persons who are implicated in the revolt are shot in Cavite. Among those executed are two gaol officials, a chemist, three rich landed propietors, a teacher, a schoolmaster, a doctor and a merchant. (Younghusband, 15-16; Sawyer, 85)

September 17, 1896
Magdiwang officers complain to their headquarters that the Magdalo troops are lacking in their usual respect, and to get even, Magdiwang officers are similarly becoming disrespectful towards Magdalo officers. The hostility spreads to the ranks and it reaches the situation where they refuse to give due respect to the superiors of the other army. The misunderstanding is traced to the lack of common rank insignias and the problem is solved with the adoption of the Magdalo system of ranking which is stripe in red with black cording worn on the cuffs of the shirt sleeve. (Alvarez , 49-50)

September 23, 1896
In his declaration in the presence of Colonel Francisco Olive y Garcia and others, Moises Salvador Francisco, of Quiapo (Manila) states that in April 1891 he came to Manila bringing with him a copy of the agreements arrived at by the Junta of Madrid, and these he handed over to Timoteo Paez to see if masonic lodges could be established as a commencement of the work. In the following year of 1892 Pedro Serrano arrived from Spain and then Masonry (native) was introduced into the Philippines, the first lodge instituted being the Nilad. (St. Clair, 78)

September 28, 1896
At eight in the evening, Major Aklan and his troops aided by guerrillas attack the Spaniards building fortifications in the narrow neck of Dalahikan but are repulsed and routed by reenforcement from the Spanish war vessel anchored along the beach. (Alvarez, 52)

September 30, 1896
Aguinaldo successfully takes complete control of the province of Cavite and prepares for its defence. Governor Blanco orders available troops in the south to concentrate in Manila and calls for volunteers and raises a force of 6,000 men. (Fernandez, 25)
[On this initial successes, Aguinaldo said: “.. it is inexplicable that men armed only with sticks and gulok, wholly unorganized and undisciplined, could defeat Spanish regulars in severe engagements at Bakoor, Imus and Noveleta and, in addition to making many of them prisoners, captured a large quantity of ammunition. It was owing to this astonishing success of the revolutionary troops that Governor Blanco quickly concluded to endeavour to maintain Spanish control by the adoption of a conciliatory policy under the pretext that he could thereby quell the rebellion, his first act being a declaration to the effect that it was not the purpose of his government to oppress the people and he had no desire 'to slaughter the Filipinos.' The government of Madrid disapproved of General Blanco's new policy and speedily appointed Lieutenant General Don Camilo Polavieja to supersede him, and despatched forthwith a large number of regulars to the Philippines.” (Aguinaldo, 2-3)]

The mail steamer Cataluna arrives with a batallion of marines from Spain to the great delight of the Spaniards who gave the force an enthusiastic reception. (Sawyer, 85)

October 2, 1896
The SS Monserrat arrive with more Spanish troops. (Sawyer, 86)

The S.S. Manila sails with 300 Filpinos banished for Chafarinas island, Ceuta and other African penal settlements. (Foreman-1899, 522)

October 5, 1896
General Marasigan, operating under the jurisdiction of the Magdiwang council of the Katipunan in Cavite, lays a 3-day siege of Balayan, Batangas, but is unable to dislodge the Spaniards and are forced to retreat with many losses. (Alvarez, 54)

October 8, 1896
Antonio Luna, who previously rebuked Bonifacio and Aguinaldo's offer to join the rebellion, in a statement before the Lieut, Col. in command of the Cuartel de Caballeria, confesses that in the year 1890 or 91, he formed a masonic project based on Spanish masonry: a project which might, at its proper time be applied to filibuster conspiracy. This project was discussed and approved by the Oriente Espanol in Madrid; but that center did not know the secondary ends were anti-Spanish. (St. Clair, 75)

October 11, 1896
Spanish troops surround the town of Naugbu, Batangas and fired mercilessly at all living things, people and beast alike, including the women, the old, and the young, and burn the whole town. The succorring Magdiwang troops led by Colonel Luciano San Miguel are ambushed by a Spanish guerrilla unit and massacred in a hand-to-hand combat, with only San Miguel lucky to escape alive. (Alvarez, 54)

October 31, 1896
Aguinaldo issues a manifesto, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity, outlining the formation of a revolutionary government, republican in form patterned after the United States, urging the Filipino people to rally to the cause of the Revolution against Spain. [This was the first attempt to break away from the authority of the katipunan which was an indication that the revolution was slowly leaving its Katipunan mould.] (Fernandez, 28)

November 10, 1896
Spanish troops augmented by loyal native auxilliaries composing the 73rd regiment, or a total strength of 3,500 troops, attack Noveleta, Cavite, but are repulsed by the rebels led by General Artemio Ricarte with a great loss - a third of the regiment, 60 Spanish troopers and scores wounded, and forced to retreat to Dalahican, about a mile north of the rebel trenches. (Foreman-1899, 520)
[This is the first major offensive of Governor General Blanco against the rebels of Cavite after a long delay on account of lack of enough troops ( the Governor already had 5,000 troops at his disposal at that time) that can garrison recaptured territories. This delay has allowed Aguinaldo to recruit more fighters and build a mile-and-half trenches that provided the rebels with effective defence aganst the Spanish advance.]

November 11, 1896
Rebels led by Aguinaldo battles the Spanish troops and recaptured the polvorin in Binakayan, Cavite. The Spaniards retreat, suffering a great loss and leaving a large number of dead on the field. Don Candido Tirona, a key rebel leader of the Magdalo Council, is killed. [Succession of victories placed the whole province of Cavite under practical possesion of Aguinaldo, excepting the port, the arsenal and the istmus. ] (Foreman-1899, 521)

November 19, 1896
The rebels of Bulacan province operating under Mariano Llanera smash a locomotive train and five coaches of the Manila-Dagupan (English) Railway for refusing to heed the order to cease carrying Spanish troops on their line. (Foreman-1899, 524)

December 13, 1896
Camilo G. de Polavieja relieves Governor General Ramon Blanco.
[Polavieja was accompanied by General Lachambre and 500 troops, with another 1,500 in separate steamer, bringing the total Spanish force to 12,000 Europeans and 6,000 native auxilliaries.](Foreman-1899, 527) He immediately waged a veritable reign of terror and slowly recaptured about a third of Cavite. Foreman says: “General Lachambre ... at once took the field against the rebels in Cavite Province. … Battles were fought at Naic, Maragondon, Perez Dasmarinas, Nasugbu, Taal, Bacoor, Noveleta, and other places. Imus, which in Manila was popularly supposed to be a rebel fortress of relative magnitude, … was attacked by a large force of loyal troops. On their approach the rebels set fire to the village and fled. Very few remained to meet the Spaniards, and as these few tried to escape across the paddy fields and down the river they were picked off by musketry fire. It was a victory for the Spaniards, inasmuch as their demonstration of force scared the rebels into evacuation. But it was necessary to take Silang, which the insurgents hastened to strengthen, closely followed up by the Spaniards. The place was well defended by earthworks and natural parapets, and for several hours the issue of the contest was doubtful. The rebels fought bravely leaping from boulder to boulder to meet the foe. In every close-quarter melee the bowie-knife (bolo) had a terrible effect, and the loyal troops had suffered heavily when a columin of Spaniards was marched rounld to the rear of the rebels' principal parapet. They were lowered down with ropes on to a rising ground facing this parapet, and poured in a continuous musketry fire until the rebels had to evacuate it, and the general rout commenced with great slaughter to the insurgents, who dispersed in all directions. Their last stronghold, south of Manila, being taken, they broke into small detachinents, which were chased and beaten wherever they made a stand. The Spaniards suffered great losses, but they gained their point, for the rebels, unable to hold any one place against this onslaught, were driven up to the Laguna Province and endeavoured unsuccessfully to take the town of Santa Cruz. (Foreman-1899, 527-528)]

December 17, 1896
On invitation of President Mariano Alvarez of the Magdiwang Council, Bonifacio arrives in Cavite, stopping at Imus in the house of Mr. Juan Castaneda. (Alvarez, 67)

December 18, 1896
Aguinaldo, together with Baldomero Aguinaldo, Daniel Tirona, Vicente Fernandez of the Magdalo Council visits Bonifacio. Upon seeing Fernandez, Bonifacio orders his arrest whom he accuses of negligence that led to the defeat of the Katipunan in the August 29 encounter. But his order is taken as a joke and ignored. (Alvarez, 67; Ricarte, 32)

Upon invitation of Major Esteban San Juan, Bonifacio visits Noveleta, together with Aguinaldo, Tirona, San Juan, and others, and are greeted by a brass band, fireworks and shouts of “Long live the Supremo.” Then the group visits San Francisco de Malabon and are greeted similarly, with a Te Deum said by Fr. Manuel Trias, a Katipunan member. (Alvarez, 67)

December 26, 1896
Unsigned, slanderous letters start circulating in the rebel communities vilifying Bonifacio - that he is an agent of the friars, that his beautiful sister is a paramour of the priest who acts as his go-between, that he absconded with Katipunan funds, that as a mason, he abhors religion and does not believe in God, that he is a man of little education and is just a lowly hired hand in a German firm dealing in tiles. Daniel Tirona of the Magdalo Council is suspected to be the source of these letters. (Alvarez, 68)
[Not long after this smear campaign, Bonifacio met Tirona in the house of Col. Santos Nocon in San Francisco de Malabon. Bonifacio demanded an explanation for the derogatory letters about him. Striking a defiant posture, Tirona airily tried to dismiss the accusation. Provoked, Bonifacio aimed his revolver at Tirona. However, President Mariano Alvarez and the women present dissuaded Bonifacio from shooting. (Alvarez, 69)]

December 29, 1896
At the initiative of the Magdalo faction, a meeting is held at the friar estate house of Imus between the Magdalo and the Magdiwang Councils for the purpose of forming a merger of the two councils under one government and formulating a constitution. Nothing concrete is achieved in the meetiing. A proposal is also put forward to snatch Dr. Jose Rizal from his captivity, but the hero's brother, Paciano, cautions everyone and says that Dr. Rizal will not approve of the plan if lives will be sacrificed for his sake, and the proposal is set aside. (Alvarez, 71)

December 30, 1896
Dr. Jose Rizal is executed by firing squad at Bagumbayan (the Luneta).
[At past one o'clock in the afternoon, Josefina (Josephine Bracken) and Trining (Trinidad Rizal), widow and sister, respectively, of Dr. Jose Rizal, arrived at San Francisco de Malabon (Cavite), accompanied by Mr. Paciano Rizal. The Supremo received them at the house of Mrs. Estefania Potente. The Rizals had with them two small sheets of folded paper which they found under the burner they took from Dr. Rizal, when they last visited him. One was the “Last Farewell” written in very fine script in Spanish, The Supremo asked to keep it for some time, so that he could translate the poem into Tagalog. His was the first translation of the farewell poem. The other manuscript, which was in English, was translated by Mr. Lorenzo Fenoy from Batangas. Dr. Jose Rizal's widow and sister stayed at the friar estate house in Terejos, San Franciso de Malabon. They realized later that, aside from his words of solace for his parents, Dr. Rizal had an urgent message for his sister Trining. He instructed her to look for something important, upon his death, inside the left shoe of his left foot. However, Trining had not been able to do so because a tight security of enemy troops prevented anyone from coming near the corpse. What could have been the important thing buried with the great Hero of the Race? (Alvarez, 72) Paciano and Josephine joined the revolution. Paciano eventually became a General in the revolutionary army while Josephine cared for the sick and wounded Filipino soldiers. She was also reported to have sallied forth on horseback with a Mauser rifle and had the satisfaction of shooting dead one Spanish officer. After the Spaniards recaptured Cavite, she was given free passage in May, 1897 to Hongkong where she died. (Foreman-1899, 537)]