Thursday, December 18, 2008

Year 1898

January 3, 1898
Aguinaldo deposits $400,000 in Hongkong and Shanghai Bank at 2% interest per annum. The self-exiled revolutionaries agree to keep the principal in the bank as a trust fund, and "…in case the Spaniards did not live up to the agreement, the money received would not be divided but would be destined to purchase arms to renew the war.” (Fernandez, 48)

Commodore Dewey takes over command of the Asiatic fleet from Rear Admiral Robert McNair at the harbor of Nagasaki, Japan. (Dewey, 174)

January 4, 1898
Aguinaldo withdraws $200,000 from Hongkong and Shanghai Bank and deposits the same with Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China at 4% interest per annum, with privilege to withdraw $50,000 every quarter. (Fernandez, 48)

January 21, 1898
Instructions are cabled to the commanders of the various squadrons to retain in service men whose terms of enlistment were about to expire. (Olcott, 39)

January 23, 1898
A solemn Te Deum is sung in the Cathedral at Manila, in thanksgiving for the coming of peace. (Fernandez, 45)

January 24, 1898
The U.S. battleship Maine is ordered to proceed to Havana, Cuba. (Buel, 343)


January 25, 1898
Commodore Dewey receives cable message from the chief of the Bureau of Navigation directing him to retain all of his men whose enlistments has expired. (Dewey, 203)

February ??, 1898
Emilio Jacinto, the right hand man of the slain Bonifacio, issues his Sangguniang Hukuman, revealing that he is still very busy "katipunizing" the province of Laguna. (Fernandez, 50)

February 10, 1898
A group of influential Filipinos residing in Madrid issues a manifesto asking the Spanish government for reforms in the administration of the Philippine islands, preferring assimilation, instead of revolution, separation, or independence. (Fernandez, 46)

February 15, 1898
The U.S. battleship Maine blows up with loss of 266 American lives in Havana harbor in Spanish-held Cuba under mysterious circumstances. Public opinion in America attributes the disaster to Spanish malice. [The Spaniards indignantly repudiated this charge and invited an official inquest. Again, at the Conference of December 6, 1898, the Spanish Commissioners of the Peace Commission at Paris proposed an additional article to the treaty "to appoint an International Commission to be entrusted with investigating the causes of, and responsibility for, the Maine catastrophe," but the proposal was rejected by the American Commissioners.] (Foreman, 418)
[In 1976, Admiral Hyman G. Rickover published his book, How the Battleship Maine Was Destroyed. The admiral became interested in the disaster and wondered if the application of modern scientific knowledge could determine the cause. He called on two experts on explosions and their effects on ship hulls. Using documentation gathered from the two official inquiries, as well as information on the construction and ammunition of Maine, the experts concluded that the damage caused to the ship was inconsistent with the external explosion of a mine. The most likely cause, they speculated, was spontaneous combustion of coal in the bunker next to the magazine.
(Maine]


February 22, 1898
American Consul in Manila, Williams, sends a dispatch to Washington saying: "Conditions here and in Cuba are practically alike. War exists, battles are of almost daily occurrence, ambulances bring in many wounded and hospitals are full. Prisoners are brought here and shot without trial, and Manila is under martial law. The crown forces have not been able to dislodge a rebel army within ten miles of Manila, and last Saturday, February 19, a battle was there fought. A republic is organized here as in Cuba. Insurgents are being armed and drilled; are rapidly increasing in numbers and efficiency, and all agree that a general uprising will come as soon as the Governor-General embarks for Spain, which is fixed for March." He adds, "All authorities now agree that unless the crown largely reinforces its army here, it will lose possession" (Storey, 30; Robinson, 38)

February 25, 1898
Dewey receives a cable from Roosevelt, the Assistant secretary of the Navy, to bring the fleet to Hongkong and kept full of coal and provisions. In case war with Spain is declared, his duty is to prevent the Spanish fleet from leaving the Asiatic coast and to commence offensive operations in the Philippine islands. (Dewey, 179; Olcott, 39; KalawM[2], 20; Dewey_Adelbert, 203)

February ??, 1898
Dewey sends one of the captains ashore to endeavor to make arrangements and terms with Filipino leaders then residing in Hongkong. This officer, who is dressed in civilian clothes, is suspected of being a Spanish spy and his overtures are rejected by Filipinos. [this endeavor was attempted upon three different occasions] (Sheridan, 41)

March ??, 1898
Unmistakable signs of impending danger shows. The outward calm is usually broken and disorders are reported in many places. [Several factors contributed to the situation, namely: (1) failure of the Spanish authorities to fully pay the agreed imdemnity, (2) general amnesty was never fully implemented and persons implicated in the rebellion were rearrested on trumped up charges, and (3) failure of the administration to implement reforms. (Fernandez, 49)

The natives of Northern Zambales beseige the cable station at Bolinao and seize the telegraph lines connecting this town and Manila. [They held their positions successfully until reinforcements arrived from Manila.] (Fernandez, 49)

March 9, 1898
The United States congress appropriates $50 million for national defence and for each and every purpose connected therefrom, to be expended at the discretion of the president. (Everett, 18)

March 17, 1898
The newspaper, Diario de Manila, publishes an article demanding autonomy and carrying out reforms provided for by the Pact of Biak-na-bato. Governor General Rivera orders the suspension of the paper. (Robinson, 35)

March 19, 1898
American Consul in Manila, Williams, reports to Washington saying that a Spanish battle ship, the Don Juan de Austria, was sent this week to the northern part of Luzon to cooperate with a land force of 2,000 dispatched to succor local forces that were overwhelmed by rebels. (Treaty, 320)

March 24, 1898
Elements of Seventy-fourth Spanish Regiment, recruited among the Visayans, refuse to obey orders to attack the Tagalog rebels in Cavite. Eight corporals are called out and shot to death in the presence of the regiment. Again orders to advance are given and disobeyed. The regiment expresses willingness to fight the foreign enemies of Spain, but they would prefer to be shot than fight their friends (the Tagalogs). [All are sent to barracks to be punished later, but the next morning the whole regimet took arms and deserted to the rebels. Another regiment followed later.] (Knapp, 169)

March 25, 1898
Acting on unverified information provided by a passer-by, police raids a house at Calle de Camba in Binondo, frequented by sea-faring Visayan men, who were suspected of a conspiracy, and indiscriminately fires at everyone who is unable to escape, killing more than 70 innocent persons. (Foreman-1899, 551)

Serious outbreak is reported in various parts of the country, some at the instigation of former Filipino rebel leaders who were not satisfied with the terms of the peace pact. (Fernandez, 50-51)
[Feliciano Jocson, an avid katipunero and head of gobierno departmental of Central Luzon, and who openly opposed the peace treaty, refused to abide by the peace agreement and attempted to attack Manila. His men were surprised at their staging area in Binondo and most of them were killed. Jocson flees but is captured by Venancio Cuesto on orders of Aguinaldo and is placed under house arrest. Upon request of General Pio Del Pilar, Jocson is taken from the Cueto's house and according to Artemio Ricarte he "mysteriously disappeared." The body of Jocson was later found near the cemetery of Mandaluyong, Rizal. (Alvarez, 204)]

March 27, 1898
American Consul in Manila, Williams, writes to State Department, saying: "On Friday morning, March 25, a church holiday, a meeting of natives was being held near my consulate in Manila, the natives being unarmed. The building was surrounded by police and military, the meeting broken up, twelve natives wantonly shot to death, several wounded and sixty-two taken prisoners. Saturday morning, March 26, the sixty-two prisoners were marched in a body to the cemetery and shot to death, although it was shown that several were chance passers-by or employees in ships adjoining, not being in attendance at the meeting. It was cold comfort to the widows and orphans of innocent men to have Spanish officers present them with the mangled corpses of husbands and fathers." (Treaty, 321-322)
[Consul Williams was referring to the failed uprising led by Feliciano Jocson two days ago.]

March 31, 1898
Consul Williams, reports to Washington saying: "A recent uprising at Cape Bolinao, on the northwest coast of this island (Luzon), about 300 miles from Manila, was crushed by united action of two regiments of infantry aided by the battle ship Don Juan de Austria. A British shipmaster there at the time reports about forty killed and forty wounded. After surrender, the Spaniards put dead and wounded together in a house and by burning it cremated all." (KalawM[2], 66)

March 31, 1898
Dewey, possibly from information given by Filipino exiles in Hongkong, cables to the Navy Department: "There is every reason to believe that with Manila taken or even blockaded the rest of the Islands would fall to the insurgents or ourselves." (Robinson, 71)

April ??, 1898
Former Filipino rebel leaders are starting to regroup. The Constitution of the General Executive Committee of Central Luzon is adopted and signed by 45 persons among whom are Francisco Macabulos Soliman, former officer of Aguinaldo, and Valentin Diaz, one of the six founders of the supreme council of the Katipunan, which attempted to establish a government to operate in the provinces of Tarlac, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Union and Nueva Ecija. (Fernandez, 51)

April ??, 1898
Filipino exiles in Hong Kong confer with Admiral Dewey, initiated by Commander Edward P. Wood , American commander of the gunboat Petrel. [Several conferences were held and were stopped on April 7, when Aguinaldo, accompanied by two other Filipinos, and went to Singapore, to escape Artacho's threatened suit, arriving at this port on the 21st. When war was declared, therefore, Aguinaldo was at Singapore, where E. Spencer Pratt, the American consul general at that city, sought him out, and had two, (three, according to Aguinaldo) secret interviews with him and his conmpanions in the presence of H. W. Bray, an Englishman, who acted as interpreter. On the advice of Pratt and with the full knowledge and approval of Admiral Dewey, Aguinaldo returned to Hongkong in order to - as Pratt's telegraphic dispatch phrased it - "arrange with commodore for general cooperation insurgents Manila if desired."] (Fernandez, 52)

April 3, 1898
Over 5,000 men stage a revolt in Cebu and for over 3 weeks harassed the government forces sent against them. (Fernandez, 50; Robinson, 36)

April 4, 1898
Dewey is advised by the Navy Department to “keep full provisions”. Purchases a vessel laden with 3,000 tons of coal. (Dewey Albert, 205)

April 5, 1898
Aguinaldo receives a letter of demand from Isabelo Artacho, a former official of the Biacnabato government, claiming that $200,000 is due him as salary having served the position of Secretary of Interior. (Aguinaldo, 7)

Dewey receives a cable from Secretary Long, “War may be declared. Situation very critical.” (Dewey, 188)

April 7, 1898
Aguinaldo with two of his staff, Col. Gregorio del Pilar and Mr. Leyba, leave Hong Kong for Singapore to evade Artacho's threatened suit for the division of the cash deposit. Eventually, the suit was settled out of court by paying Artacho $5,000.

April 11, 1898
U.S. President McKinley in one of his public utterances says that forcibel annexation should not be thought of, for according to American standards that would be criminal aggression. (KalawM[2], 25)

April 20, 1898
The Teller resolution is passed by U.S. Congress and war with Spain is practically declared. The resolution declares that conditions in Cuba "have shocked the moral sense of the people of the United States" and "have been a disgrace to Christian civilization"; that Spain should relinquish its sovereignty over that Island, for "the people of Cuba are and of right ought to be free and independent;" that the United States has no intention to exercise control or sovereignty over the Island except for the purposes of pacification; and that once that is accomplished she would "leave the government and control of the Island to its people." (KalawM[1], 99-100)

April 22, 1898
The American Consul General in Singapore, E. Spencer Pratt, seeks Aguinaldo to arrange for a general cooperation with Commodore Dewey. After conferring with Aguinaldo, in the presence of Del Pilar and Mr. Leyba, Aguinaldo's secretary, Consul Pratt sends a cable to Dewey saying "Aguinaldo, insurgent leader here. Will come Hongkong arrange with Commodore for general cooperation insurgents Manila if desired..", to which, Dewey replied: "Tell Aguinaldo come as soon as possible." (Storey, 45)

April 23, 1898
US President McKinley issues a call for volunteers to form a volunteer army to serve a minimum of two years. (Oregon-AGO, xii)

April 24, 1898
American Consul General Pratt and Agunaldo meet in Singapore, in the presence of Mr.Howard W. Bray, an Englishman closely associated with the Hongkong Filipino Junta, the Editor of the Singapore Free Press, and 3 of Aguinaldo's staff, namely: Mr. J. Leyba, Col. G. H. Del Pilar and Dr. Marcelino Santos, a Filipino resident of Singapore. As a result of the meeting Pratt cables Dewey if he wanted to see Aguinaldo, and the Admiral replies to send Aguinaldo to him. (Dewey, 245; Robinson, 71-72)

April 25, 1898
The declaration of war by the United States against Spain is signed by President McKinley after having been passed by both houses of the United States congress.

At 12:45 p.m., Dewey receives this cable from Secretary Long: “War has commenced between the United States and Spain. Proceed at once to the Philippine Islands. Commence operations particularly against the Spanish fleet. You must capture vessel or destroy. Use utmost endeavor.” (Dewey, 195; Olcott, 40)

April 26, 1898
Aguinaldo and his staff, del Pilar and Leyba, at the instance of U.S. Consul Pratt, board the steamer Malacca for Hongkong for the purpose of meeting Commodore Dewey.

April 27, 1898
CommodoreDewey and his fleet leave Mirs Bay (on the Chinese side opposite Hongkong island) for the Philippines; finding no Spanish vessels in Subic, proceed to Manila Bay.
[Dewey's fleet had been in Hongkong harbor, awaiting orders, until the British asked him to move to the Chinese side after the United States declared war with Spain in order not to jeopardize the neutral position of the British.]

A delegation of Filipinos in Hongkong composed of Teodoro Sandico, Jose Maria Basa, Tomas Mascardo, Lorenzo L. Zialcita, Andres E. Garchitorena, Miguel Malvar, Mariano Llanera, and Salvatore Estrella pays a courtesy call on American Consul Wildman and he agree, on behalf of Dewey, to allow two of the Filipinos – Jose Alejandrino and Garchitorena - to accompany the fleet to Manila. (Atkinson, 49)

April 28, 1898
American Consul General Pratt telegrams Washington about his meeting with Aguinaldo, and of Dewey desirous of having Aguinaldo sent over to the Philippines.

April 30, 1898
CommodoreDewey and his fleet arrive off point Bolinao at daybreak and pass the Corregidor forts at midnight. (Everett, 52; Sheridan, 29)

American Consul General Pratt writes Sec of State Long saying Aguinaldo hoped the United States would protect the Philippines long enough to allow Filipinos establish their own government.

April ??, 1898
Filipino exiles in Hongkong sends a manifesto to the Islands proclaiming that the Americans have come as liberators and urging the people not to heed the call of the Spanish authorities to oppose the Americans. The proclamation says in part: "...The Americans will attack by sea and prevent any reinforcements coming from Spain; therefore we insurgents must attack by land. Probably you will have more than sufficient arms, because the Americans have arms and will find means to assist us. There, where you see the American flag flying, assemble in numbers; they are our redeemers." (Storey, 45)

May 1, 1898
Dewey destroys the Spanish fleet in Manila bay. The first gun was fired at 5:10 a.m. and the fight is practically ended at 7:00 a.m. (Sheridan, 32)

May 2, 1898
Dewey takes possession of the Cavite Arsenal and anchored his fleet within a short distance of its walls. (Sheridan, 34)

On Dewey's orders, the Zafiro cut the submarine cables, after the Spanish authorities had refused to allow him to use it to communicate with his government.
[With the cables cut, the McCullough ran errands between Manila and Hongkong where the communications can be sent to the United States.](Everett, 56)

Aguinaldo arrives in Hongkong from Singapore and immediately calls on American Consul Rounsevelle Wildman. (Atkinson, 49)

May ??, 1898
American Consul in Hongkong, Wildman, writes a letter to Aguinaldo saying: "Do not forget that the United States undertook this war for the sole purpose of relieving the Cubans from the cruelties under which they were suffering and not for the love of conquest or the hope of gain. They are actuated by exactly the same feeling for the Filipinos." (Storey, 46)

May 4, 1898
Commodore Dewey cables Secretary Long that his squadron controls the bay and could take the city at anytime. The only reason for awaiting the arrival of troops before demanding its surrender is the lack of sufficient force to occupy it. (Dewey, 224)

Filipinos in Hong Kong, with misgivings, agree to send Aguinaldo back to the Philippines and cooperate with the Americans even in absence of a written agreement. They conclude that Aguinaldo should at once place himself at the head of the revolution, discipline an army and be prepared to make the most out of the difficult situation.(Fernandez, 52-53)

The Singapore Free Press publishes a complete account of the meeting on April 24th between Aguinaldo and U.S. Singapore Consul Pratt which asserts that Aguinaldo had, in view of what took place in Singapore and the telegrams received from Commodore Dewey [then in Hongkong], full justification for believing that the United States would raise no objection to the complete autonomy of the Philippines, and would, after the Spaniards were expelled from the islands, establish a protectorate over the whole group. Copies of the paper were forwarded by the Consul to Washington with a comment that the story was in the main correct. (Robinson, 43-44; Blount, 8)
[“In the first impression of the edition (1899 edition of John Foreman's book, The Philippines) , there appeared certain statements in regard to the relations of Edward Spencer Pratt, the United States Consul-General in Singapore, with General Emilio Aguinaldo which were objected to by that consular official. Pratt brought court action against the publishers of the book, won the case and its Shanghai publisher fined and ordered to withdraw from sale all copies of the book. As a result of the case, the author deleted the materials objected to - pages 567 and 568 in the first impression - necessitating the issuance of a second impression without the offending statements. It seems that the offending passage attributed to Pratt statements that he had inveigled Aguinaldo into returning to Manila to collaborate with Commodore Dewey on the consul's assurance that the United States would allow the Filipinos to gain their independence. T. H. Pardo de Tavera, creole scholar in his Biblioteca Filipina, believed that it was Consul Rounseville Wildman of Hongkong who deceived Aguinaldo and who claimed that Foreman's documents "were false and a calumny on the American government." Significantly, the names of Pratt and Wildman do not appear in the 1906 edition. Pardo also believed that Foreman later took the vows of a priest in the Augustinian convent in Mexico.” (Foreman, xi-xii) Portions of the modified pages 567-568 of Foreman's book read as follows: "Emilio Aguinaldo and suite went to Singapore, where they found Mr. Howard W. Bray, an Englishman and old personal friend of mine, who had resided some years in the Islands. Aguinaldo and his party were obliged to travel incognito, because secret paid agents were on his track to endeavour to fetter his movements, and in Singapore a Malay police sergeant was illegally employed to investigate the private acts of a Filipino. The editor of the Singapore Free Press and Mr. Bray had become acquainted. The editor introduced Mr. Bray to the American Consul-General, Mr. Spencer Pratt, and Mr. Bray presented Emilio Aguinaldo to the Consul-General. The midnight meeting of the above-named four persons took place at " The Mansion," River Valley Road, Singapore, on the 24th of April, the day following the outbreak of AmericanSpanish hostilities. The original idea in making Aguinaldo and the Consul-General known to each other was to utilize Aguinaldo's services and prestige with the armed natives to control them and prevent reprisals when the American forces should appear before Manila. It was hoped that, in this way, the lives of many Spaniards in the Islands would be spared. The result of this Singapore meeting was that a draft Agreement between Consul-General Pratt and Emilio Aguinaldo was drawn up, subject to the approval of Commodore Dewey and subsequent confirmation from Washington. The essence of this provisional understanding was as follows, viz.:- (1.) Philippine Independence to be proclaimed. (2.) A Federal Republic to be established by vote of the rebels; pending the taking of this vote Aguinaldo was to appoint the members of that Government. (3.) The Federal Republic to recognize a temporary intervention of American and European Administrative Commissions to be appointed by Commodore Dewey. (4.) The American Protectorate to be recognized on the same terms as those fixed for Cuba. (5.) Philippine ports to be open to all the world. (6.) Precautionary measures to be adopted against the influx of Chinese. (7.) The existing judicial system to be reformed. (8.) Liberty of the press and right of assembly to be proclaimed. (9.) Ample tolerance of all religions and sects, but abolition and expulsion of all monastic orders. (10.) Measures to be adopted for working up the natural resources of the Archipelago. (11.) The wealth of the country to be developed by the construction of high roads and railways. (12.) The obstacles operating against the development of enterprises and employment of foreign capital to be removed. (13.) The new Government to preserve public order and check all reprisals against the Spaniards. (14.) Spanish officials to be transported to another safe and healthy island until there shall be an opportunity for their return to Spain. (15.) This Agreement is subject to ratification (by telegraph) by Commodore Dewey and President MacKinley. Consul-General Pratt thereupon sent Emilio Aguinaldo with his staff to Hongkong with instructions to Consul Wildman to put him in communication with Commodore Dewey, which he did, and Commodore Dewey, before he left China for Manila, gave orders to Consul Wildman to see that Aguinaldo and his staff followed on in an American warship." (Foreman-1899, 567-568)]

In an effort to win the Filipinos to fight on the side of Spain in the war with the United States, Spanish Governor-General Basilio Agustin issues a decree creating a consultative assembly, in which several leading Filipinos, among them Artemio Ricarte and Baldomero Aguinaldo, who were formerly identified with Aguinaldo are given seats. (Malcolm, 93)

May 6, 1898
American Consul in Hongkong, Wildman, reports to Washington that certain wealthy and influential Filipino bankers, landowners and advocates, living in Hongkong, namely: Don Doroteo Cortes, Don Maximo Cortes, and Dona Eustaquia, wife of Don Maximo; Arcadio Rosario, Gracio Gonzaga, and Don Jose Maria Basa, desire to tender their allegiance and the allegiance of their powerful families in Manila to the United States. They have instructed all their connections to render every aid to United States forces in Manila. (Treaty, 334)

May 8, 1898
Archbishop Bernardino Nozaleda of Manila, in a circular urges Filipinos to defend the Roman Catholic Church against the invasion of protestant Americans. Governor-General Agustin also tries to win over the former leaders of the rebellion to fight on the Spanish side.

May 12, 1898
Major-General Wesley Merritt is placed in command of the proposed expedition to the Philippines. (Olcott, 165)

May 14, 1898
American Consul in Hongkong, Wildman, sends to Washington statements of other wealthy Filipino residents in Hongkong, namely: Severino Rotea and Lopez, Claudio Lopez, A.H. Marti and Eugenia Plona, all Visayans, who wish to tender their allegiance to the United States. (Treay, 334-335)

May 16, 1898
American Consul Wildman of Hongkong obtains permission from Commodore Dewey to allow Aguinaldo to go by the United States ship McCulloch, and put him on board at night to prevent any complication with the local government. (Atkinson, 49)

May 17, 1898
Upon instructions of Archbishop Nozaleda, Father Gregorio Aglipay proceeds to the camp of the Filipino rebels in Cavite to ask them to fight on the side of the Spaniards against the Americans. He was unsuccessful.

May 19, 1898
President McKinley issues an order to the Secretary of War, clearly indicating his intention of holding the Philippine islands pending a final settlement with Spain. The order contains detailed instructions on the occupation of the Philippine Islands to be administered by the designated commander of the expedition, General Merritt, which shall be characterized by firmness of purpose, practical judgment in outlining the preliminary measures of administration, and above all by a spirit of fairness and justice to the people of the islands and respect for their rights of person and property. (Olcott, 166-172)
[Similar in spirit to this letter were the instructions to General Elwell S. Otis, dated December 21, I898]

Aguinaldo and 13 staff arrive at Cavite on board the American dispatch boat McCulloch and is received enthusiastically by the Filipinos.

Upon arrival at Cavite, Dewey invites Aguinaldo on board the flagship Olympia for a conference. Dewey assures Aguinaldo that the United States had come to the Philippines to free the inhabitants from the Spanish yoke, that the United States was rich in territory and money and had no need of colonies, and that he had no doubt the United States would recognize Filipino independence. Admiral asks Aguinaldo if he can raise the country against Spain and carry on a rapid campaign. Aguinaldo says he could do nothing until the arrival of the arms ordered of Wildman, whereupon the Admiral offers to expedite the shipment and also offers him all the cannon captured on the Spanish ships, as well as the arms and ammunition captured by the gunboat Petrel at Corregidor Island. Dewey also tells Aguinaldo that Filipinos and Americans should treat each other as friends and allies and that, the United States would recognize Filipino independence. He also tells Aguinaldo to devise a national flag and that he would recognize and protect it. (Blunt, 153-154)

May ??, 1898
As soon as they set foot in Cavite upon their arrival from Hongkong, Isabelo Artacho, Primitivo Artacho, Agustin de la Rosa and Celestino Aragon are arrested in conjunction with the controversy on the money deposited in Hongkong and deported to the interior pueblo of the province. (KalawT[2], 469)

May 20, 1898
Admiral Dewey sends the following cable to Washington: "Aguinaldo, the rebel commander, was brought down by the McCulloch. Organizing forces near Cavite, and may render assistance which will be valuable." (Storey, 48-49)

Luciano San Miguel comes to see Aguinaldo and obtains direct orders to renew the revolution in Central Luzon.

May 22, 1898
Aguinaldo makes a prisoner of Felipe Buencamino after the latter, who is in command as a colonel of the Tercio de Anda y Salazar in the Zapote line, tried to induce Aguinaldo to go over to the side of the Spaniards. Buencamino is eventually released at the instance of Don Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista.

May 23, 1898
A battalion of Macabebes who were recruited and armed by Spanish authorities to defend the islands against the American invasion desert to Aguinaldo, followed by the remaining volunteers, with their arms and equipment. (Magoon, 44-45)

May 24, 1898
Aguinaldo issues his first proclamation which says in part “... the great nation of North America ... has come to manifest a protection which is disinterested in us ..., considering us with sufficient civilization to govern by ourselves in this our unhappy land.” (PIS-V1N03, 93)

Upon advice of lawyer Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, Aguinaldo issues a proclamation announcing the creation of a dictatorial government, citing collaboration with the Americans, urges Filipinos to renew the rebellion against Spain. (Fernandez, 64)

American Consul in Manila, Williams, reports to Washington and says: “At a conference with General Aguinaldo, the head of the movement, I was told that they had now above 4,500 Mauser rifles taken from the Spaniards, and had also abundant ammunition. Until the present they have been fatally crippled in these respects. Last week Major Gonzales captured two buffalo cart loads of rifle ammunition from the Spaniards. To-day I executed a power of attorney whereby General Aguinaldo releases to his attorneys in fact 400,000, now in bank in Hongkong, so that money therefrom can pay for 3,000 stand of arms bought there and expected here to-morrow. The same sources informed me that about 37,000 insurgents stand ready to aid United States forces, and General Aguinaldo's headquarters were this a. m. at 7 o'clock surrounded by 500 to 1,000 men eager to enlist. I was there at that hour and saw the men."

May 25, 1898
The first detachment of the expedition to the Philippines under the command of Brigadier-General Thomas M. Anderson from San Francisco sails. (Olcott, 166)

May ??, 1898
A large, though crude, sort of arsenal and cartridge-factory employing 400 people is established by the Filipino rebels in Imus, Cavite and Bulacan.

May ??, 1898
Some five or six small steam vessels are procured from Singapore by Aguinaldo and fitted with guns recovered from the sunken Spanish vessels, to be used in inter-island transport of soldiers and supplies. These vessels, including two steamers donated by rich Filipino supporters and another steamer owned by a Spaniard and commandeered by a Filipino crew constituted Aguinaldo's flotilla, or the first Filipino navy.

May ??, 1898
Aguinaldo summons Apolinario Mabini to act as his advisor, replacing Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista.

May 26, 1898
Secretary Long of the U.S. State Department cautions Admiral Dewey not to enter into an uncomfortable arrangement with Aguinaldo.

May 26, 1898
Admiral Dewey is very much pleased with Aguinaldo and turns over to him two modern field pieces, 300 rifles and plenty of ammunitions taken from the Cavite arsenal.
[On being asked during the U.S. Senate hearing if the Americans armed the Filipinos, Buencamino had this reply: “About 190, not formally delivered to them, but the Spaniards in leaving the city of Cavite, the city was entered by the Filipinos, and Admiral Dewey sent word that he was not going to fight the Filipinos. Then they found the arms there abandoned by the Spaniards and took them. After that they received nothing.” (Buencamino, 39)]

Aguinaldo with 600 men, attacks Cavite Viejo.

May 27, 1898
The arms purchased through American Consul Wildman in Hong Kong consisting of 3,000 Mauser rifles and 200,000 cartridges arrive to arm thousands of Filipinos who pour in to enlist in the reactivated Philippine Revolutionary Army.

May 28, 1898
The second phase of the revolution commences when 270 Spanish marines sent out to capture the arms and ammunition shipped from Hong Kong are engaged and driven back by the Revolutionary Army. Governor General Agustin intimated to the consultative assembly that he is ready to grant the reforms asked, that obviously have come too late. A small steamer Faon, an assumed name, arrives from Canton and unloads 3,000 stand of Remington breech loading rifles and a large stock of cartridges for these rifles. (Stickney, 75)

May 31, 1898
Aguinaldo's army drives Spanish troops into Manila, the battle lasting seventy hours, with 1,000 Spanish losses. The Filipinos have the opportunity to burst into the city and capture it, but Aguinaldo was prevailed upon by Dewey to postpone the attack until the arrival of the American troops. (Younghusband, 22)

Paterno publishes a manifesto outlining his proposal for an autonomous government under Spain, urging the people to help "our old friend Spain and realize with her more quickly our aspirations."
[When a Tagalog translation of this manifesto found its way to Aguinaldo's office, he wrote on the margin: "You are pretty late." Some of the members of the assembly, like Rianzares Bautista, had already gone to Aguinaldo. Felipe Buencamino was sent by the Spanish authorities to negotiate with Aguinaldo, but instead of bringing back Aguinaldo's reply, he decided to remain with him. Upon the arrival of the Filipino chief from Hongkong any hope that Spain may have had of gaining the good wishes and cooperation of the Filipinos vanished.] (KalawM[1], 110)


June 3, 1898
Filipino troops take control of Caloocan, Tondo, Santa Cruz, San Juan del Monte, Santolan, in the words of Admiral Dewey, "practically surrounded Manila.”

June 6, 1898
Aguinaldo sends a representative to Governor-General Agustin asking him to capitulate. No response is received.

Dewey sends a dispatch to Washington saying: "Insurgents have been engaged actively in the province of Cavite during the last week; they had several small victories, taking prisoners about 1,800 men, 50 officers; Spanish troops, not native." (Storey, 49)

June 7, 1898
Aguinaldo sends a letter to Governor General Agustin asking him to surrender, but no response is received.

June 8, 1898
About 30 Filipino residents of Singapore led by Dr. Marcelino Santos, a dentist practicing in the city, serenaded American Consul General Pratt and presented to him a statement of appreciation for the support Admiral Dewey is giving to Aguinaldo and express the hope that Philippine independence is secured under protection of the United States. Consul Pratt’s reply which was published in the Singapore Free Press and The Strait Times did not clarify the position of the United States as to the matter of independence, viz: “You have just reason to be proud of what has been and is being accomplished by General Aguinaldo and your fellow countrymen under his command. … I can only hope that the eventual outcome will be all that can desired for the happiness ad welfare of the Filipinos.” (Fernandez, 57)

Aguinaldo forms a dictatorial government and installs himself dictator.

June 9, 1898
Consul Pratt reported to the U.S. State Department what had transpired the night before, forwarding the newspaper clippings that described the affair. (Fernandez, 57)

June 10, 1898
Aguinaldo writes to "The President of the Great American Nation", and delivers it with the help of his British friend, Mr. Howard W. Bray, expressing great sorrow on learning that the United States, as published in the Times, will retain the islands at the conclusion of the war, and if Spain fails to pay for indemnity, will sell the islands to a European power.

June 12, 1898
Aguinaldo proclaims the independence of the Philippines, the proclamation is signed by, among others, Admiral Dewey's secretary, Col L. M. Johnson.

Dewey sends another cable to Washington: "Insurgents continue hostilities and have practically surrounded Manila. They have taken 2,500 prisoners, whom they treat most humanely. They do not intend to attack city proper until the arrival of U.S. troops thither; I have advised."


June 13, 1898
The United States congress supplemented the original $50 million national defense fund which was totally expended with an authorization to issue a 3%, popular loan of $400 million, of which $200 million was offered and promptly taken. (Everett, 25)

June 14, 1898
Secretary Long of the U.S. Department of State requires Admiral Dewey to report all activities and arrangements with Aguinaldo.

June 15, 1898
General Miguel Malvar liberates the province of Tayabas (Quezon) from the Spaniards after two months of battle.

The second detachment of the expedition to the Philippines under the command of General Francis V. Greene sails. (Olcott, 166)

June 16, 1898
American Consul in Manila, Williams, reports to Washington saying that Aguinaldo's forces "had captured nearly 5,000 prisoners, nearly 4,000 of whom were Spaniards, and all of whom had rifles when taken. General Aguinaldo has now about 10,500 rifles and 8 fieldpieces, with 8,000 more rifles, 2 Maxim guns and a dynamite gun bought in China and now in transit. The insurgents have defeated the Spaniards at all points except at fort near Matate, and hold not only North Luzon to the suburbs of Manila, but Batangas Province also and the bay coast entire, save the city of Manila." (Robinson, 47)


Mr. William Day of the State Department advises American Consul in Singapore, Mr. Pratt, to "avoid unauthorized negotiations with Philippine insurgents." and in separate cable tells Mr. Pratt that "If, in the course of your conferences with General Aguinaldo, you acted upon the assumption that this Government would cooperate with him for the furtherance of any plan of his own, or that, in accepting his cooperation, it would consider itself pledged to recognize any political claims which he may put forward, your action was unauthorized and can not be approved." (Foreman, 437)

June ??, 1898
The Spanish-sponsored consultative assembly draws up a plan for an autonomous government of the Philippines which was presented to Aguinaldo, but the latter rejected it.

June ??, 1898
A circular of the consultative assembly to recruit volunteers into a Filipino Militia to fight the United States, showing prominent names of the former leaders of the revolution - Pablo Padilla, Emiliano Riego de Dios, Baldomero Aguinaldo, Mariano Trias, Artemio Ricarte, Pio del Pilar, Mariano Luna, all prominent members of the Katipunan - attracted many to serve and were issued arms and equipment, only to be found by the Spaniards later that these volunteers would become soldiers of the reactivated Philippine Revolutionary Army.

June 18, 1898
Aguinaldo issues a decree establishing a dictatorial government and outlining the formation of local governments and the election of national representatives to Congress. (Fernandez, 66-67; Guevara, 7)

June 20, 1898
Aguinaldo issues a decree imposing a compulsory contribution to war tax for all persons 18 years and above.

At the suggestion of Mabini, the dictatorial government is changed to a Revolutionary Government with Aguinaldo as President, retaining both civil and military powers.

June 23, 1898
Dewey reports to Secretary Long of the U.S. State Department stating that Aguinaldo's work is "wonderful, " and in his opinion, "these people are far superior in their intelligence and more capable of self-government than the natives of Cuba, and I am familiar with both races." Dewey further reiterated his statement saying: "further intercourse with them has confirmed me in that opinion." (Storey, 50)

Aguinaldo issues a decree announcing the process of transition from a revolutionary government to a republic, the concluding part of which says: "Thus they have constituted a revolutionary government with wise and just laws suited to the abnormal conditions confronting them, and which at the proper time will prepare them for a true republic. Thus taking for its only justification the right, for its sole aid, justice, and for its only means honorable labor, the government calls, and invites them to unite solidly, with the object of forming a noble society ennobled, not by blood or pompous titles, but by labor and personal merit of the individual, - a free society where there is no room for egotism and personal politics which whither and blight, nor for envy or favoritism which debase, nor for charlatanry or buffonery which cause ridicule. No other course is possible. A people that has given proof of fortitude and valor in suffering and in danger, of industry and learning in time of peace, is not made for slavery. These people are called to be great, to be one of the strong arms of Providence in directing the destinies of humanity. These people have sufficient energy and resources to recover from the ruin and humiliation in which it had been placed by the Spanish government and to claim a modest but worthy place in the concert of free nations." (Storey, 53; Guevara, 28)

June 24, 1898
John T. McCutcheon sends a dispatch to his paper, the Chicago Record as follows: "All during the week following there was constant evidence of strife that was being waged between Cavite and Malate... Imus, Bacoor, Las Pinas and Paranaque were captured in less than a week notwithstanding the fact that the Spaniards had splendid guns and ammunitions in unlimited quantities, supported by five mountain batteries and rapid fire guns... Over in Cavite the calm passionless statements of great victories that Aguinaldo gave us were being substantiated every day for hundreds and hundreds of Spanish soldiers were being marched and placed in prison!... Closely following the remarkable insurgent success in Cavite Province, where the whole district had been captured in eight days, came stories of other successful operations in Pampanga Province; Macabebe and San Fernando were captured and the great Spanish General Molet fled in terror to Manila. Over one thousand Spanish soldiers had been taken prisoners and their arms given out to natives as quickly as possible... Our respect for the insurgent prowess had grown a great deal, for by June 30 they had taken almost every province in Luzon, with the exception of isolated garrisons and were hammering away at the doors of Manila." (Storey, 57-58)

June 25, 1898
The American Consul in Hongkong, Rounseville Williams, write to Aguinaldo and says: "Do not forget that the United States undertook this war for the sole purpose of relieving the Cubans from the cruelties under which they were suffering and not for love of conquest and the love for gain. They are actuated by precisely the same feelings for the Filipinos." (KalawM[1], 102)

June 27, 1898
The Philippine government rules of executive business are announced. (Storey, 53)

June 30, 1898
The First U.S. Expeditionary Forces consisting of 2,500 volunteers from California and Oregon under the command of General Thomas Anderson arrive in Manila. With Aguinaldo's consent, the troops are assigned to the arsenal of Cavite and the fort of San Felipe.

Admiral Dewey pays a visit to Aguinaldo in Cavite to ask permission to land American troops that had just arrived to be quartered in Cavite. (KalawT[2], 467)

Vicente Lukban informs Felipe Calderon that nothing in writing and official had been stipulated with Admiral Dewey concerning the conditions under which the war was carried on in the Philippines. Calderon is also told that a cargo of arms embarked in a Chinese port, on the S. S. Pasig bound for the Philippines had been stopped by the British authorities at the request of the North-American consul of Hongkong; that the Americans were not ready to make any concessions to the Filipinos, and that, after using Aguinaldo as a tool and causing him to start the insurrection again, they would abandon him or become his enemies. In view of these statements, Calderon suggests to Lukban the urgent necessity of submitting all he had told to Aguinaldo, and that it was necessary to convince him that he must at all costs obtain formal and solemn promises from Admiral Dewey, as representative of the Congress and President of the United States. Lukban replies that such an undertaking is difficult, inasmuch as Aguinaldo is much compromised; and that if any person could do it, that person is Felipe Agoncillo, upon whose advice Aguinaldo had come to the Philippines without stipulating anything with Admiral Dewey. (KalawT[2], 468)

July 2, 1898
Calapan, Mindoro is occupied by Filipino troops consisting of a small expeditionary force from Batangas.

American Consul in Singapore, Mr. Spencer Pratt, cables Washington stating that the Sultan of Sulu, who stopped over Singapore on his return home from Mecca, is negotiating for the transfer of the protectorate of his territory in the Philippines from Spain to the British North Borneo.

July 3, 1898
The Filipino republic is proclaimed.

July 4, 1898
General Anderson writes to Aguinaldo saying he has entire sympathy and most friendly sentiments to the Filipino people, to have the most amicable relations with Aguinaldo and to cooperate in military operations against the Spanish forces. (Storey, 50-51; Leonidas, 95)

July 6, 1898
Dewey dispatches the Raleigh and Concord to check on the complain of Aguinaldo that the German cruiser Irene is harassing their ship and interfering with their operations at Subic bay and Isla Grande. The German cruiser steams out of Subic as soon as the American ships arrived. The two cruisers fire a few shots at Isla Grande and six Spanish officers and five hundred men surrender, which were turned over to the Filipinos. (Dewey, 265)

July 15, 1898
Aguinaldo appoints a provisional cabinet: Baldomero Aguinaldo, War and Public Works; Leandro Ibarra, Interior; Marinao Trias, Treasury. (Storey, 53)

July 17, 1898
The second contingent of thirty-six hundred American troops came in under the command o. Brigadier General Francis V. Greene. (Dewey, 268)

July 18, 1898
American Consul in Hongkong, Wildman, cables to Washington expressing concern about reports that the United States will return the Philippine islands to Spain at the conclusion of the hostilities. He says that the Filipinos are very capable, want independence and rely upon the well known sense of justice of the United States as to their future. He wants to put on record that "the insurgent government of the Philippine Islands can not be dealt with as though they were North American Indians, willing to be removed from one reservation to another at the whim of their masters. If the United States decides not to retain the Philippine Islands, its 10,000,000 people will demand independence, and the attempt of any foreign nation to obtain territory or coaling stations will be resisted with the same spirit with which they fought the Spaniards"
(Atkinson, 48-49)

July 20, 1898
Mr. Day of the U.S. State Department replies to the June 9th letter of U.S. Consul Pratt of Singapore castigating the latter for not correcting the statements of the Filipinos regarding the support of Admiral Dewey to Aguinaldo and the hope for independence of the Filipinos under American protectorate. Mr. Day also informed Consul Pratt that the newspaper clippings were not passed on to the press, “lest it might seem thereby to lend a sanction to views the expression of which it (the State Department) had not authorized.” (Fernandez, 57)

Marinduque is authorized by Aguinaldo to constitute itself as an independent province.

July 22, 1898
Spanish authorities surrenders Dagupan to Filipino forces.

July 23, 1898
General Anderson writes to Aguinaldo asking for 500 horses and 50 oxens and carts, and if these are not provided he will deal directly with the people. (Leonidas, 97)

July 25, 1898
The Second and Third U.S. Expeditionary Force consisting of 10,000 men under General Merritt arrive.
[By end of July 20,000 U.S. troops were encamped in Cavite and suburbs of Manila.]

July 26, 1898
The French Ambassador, M. Cambon, presents a communication signed by the Duke of Almodovar, Spanish minister of State, inviting the United States government to state the terms it would be willing to make peace. (Everett, 33)

July 29, 1898
Filipino troops surrounding Manila withdraw to give way to newly-arrived American troops upon request of the American military.

July 30, 1898
The United States communicates its demands to the Duke of Almodovar, which is as in the peace protocol afterward signed. (Everett, 33)

July 31, 1898
American troops as a "show of force", attack old fort San Antonio held by the Spaniards, but are repulsed and forced to retreat to Paranaque under heavy fire, leaving their guns and ammunition Filipino troops recapture armaments and return them to the Americans.

American Brigadier-General Arthur MacArthur with four thousand troops arrive. (Dewey, 272)

August ??, 1898
Aguinaldo's forces surround the city of Manila with fourteen miles of trenches, the water and food supplies are cut off, internal trade is paralyzed and the inhabitants of the city are reduced to a diet of horseflesh. So closely were the Filipino forces besieging Manila that when American General Anderson and his forces arrived, he was compelled to request from Aguinaldo permission to occupy part of the fighting line and entrenchments of the Filipinos. (Storey, 58)

August 1, 1898
The "Act of Independence" is signed by about 200 Filipinos who are serving as local presidents of various townships.

August 2, 1898
A commissioner (Edward Harden) is appointed by the U.S. Secretary of State to investigate and report on financial and industrial conditions of the Philippine Islands. (Storey, 41)

August 4, 1898
Spanish Governor General Agustin is relieved from duty and the government is turned over to Fermin Jaudenes.

American Consul in Manila, Williams, writes to Washington, bragging about his services and hoping to be appointed commissioner of customs or agriculture, or light-house inspector for the Philippine islands. Previously, he has reported that Aguinaldo and the Filipino leaders wanted the Philippine islands to become a colony of the United States, which was complete lie, considering that at that time, a provisional Filipino government was already established by Aguinaldo. It is possible his reports to Washington were partly biased on account of his desire to land a high position in an American administered territory of the Philippine islands.

August 6, 1898
Aguinaldo sends a document called Memorandum to Foreign Governments, with a copy of the Act of Independence, to various consulates in Manila to inform them of the declaration of independence of the Philippines and asking for recognition. The memorandum also states that the new Philippine government is in control of 15 provinces where complete order and tranquility reign, administered by officials elected by the people, and that the Filipino army was then holding 9,000 Spanish prisoners of war. (Magoon, 120)

August 7, 1898
Major General Merritt formally notifies Governor General Jaudines that the military operations of the land and naval forces of the United States will begin after the expiration of forty eight hours and advises the removal of all non-combatants from the city. Jaudines replies that the city is surrounded by the insurgent forces and he has no place of refuge for the non-combatants. (Everett, 172)

An expedition led by a young Filipino officer, Manuel Tinio, marched from La union and occupied Bangar, Tagudin, Vigan, Laoag and Bangui.

August 9, 1898
A joint formal demand for surrender is sent by Admiral Dewey and General Merritt to Spanish Governor General Jaudines who replies that the demand cannot be granted although he asks for time strictly for communication through Hongkong to consult his government, which was declined by the Americans. (Everett, 180)

August 10, 1898
Aguinaldo issues a decree specifying the functions and powers of the Hongkong Junta which he authorizes to represent his government abroad, dispose of certain sums in its possession for the purchase of arms, and act as center of intrigue in Europe and the Unites States. (Magoon, 120)

August 12, 1898
A protocol of peace is signed between the United States and Spain, by U.S. Secretary of State William R. Day and French Ambassador at Washington, M. Jules Cambon, on behalf of Spain which essentially provides as follows: Spain shall relinquish all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba (Article 1); Spain will cede to the United States the island of Porto Rico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, and also an island in the Ladrones to be selected by the United States (Article 2); the United States will occupy and hold the city, bay and harbor of Manila pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace which shall determine the control, disposition, and government of the Philippines (Article 3). (Everett, 34)
[The Spanish Minister, in a lengthy reply, (regarding the draft of the peace protocol) dated August 7, while accepting the first two propositions, left the question of the Philippines in such a state of ambiguity as to make a subsequent misunderstanding more than likely:"The terms relating to the Philippines seem, to our understanding, to be quite indefinite. On the one hand, the ground on which the United States believe themselves entitled to occupy the bay, the harbor, and the city of' Manila, pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace, cannot be that of conquest, since in spite of the blockade maintained on sea by the American fleet, in spite of the siege established on land by a native, supported and provided for by the American admiral, Manila still holds its own, and the Spanish standard still waves over the city. On the other hand, the whole archipelago of the Philippines is in the power and under the sovereignty of Spain. Therefore, the Government of Spain thinks that the temporary occupation of Manila should constitute a guaranty. It is stated that the treaty of peace shall determine the control, disposition, and government of the Philippines; but as the intentions of the Federal Government by regression remain veiled, therefore the Spanish Government must declare that, while accepting the third condition, they do not a priori renounce the sovereignty of Spain over the archipelago, leaving it to the negotiators to agree as to such reforms which the condition of these possessions and the level of culture of their natives may render desirable." (Olcott, 69-70) ]

Dewey receives two cables from Acting Sec. Allen in Washington, the first says that a peace protocol is signed and instructs him to suspend all hostilities and the blockade, and the second explains the contents of the peace protocol, that the United States will occupy and hold the city, bay and harbor of Manila pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace which shall determine the control, disposition and government of the Philippines. (Dewey, 281)

General Anderson receives an order from General Merritt to notify Aguinaldo not to let insurgent troops enter the city of Manila.

August 13, 1898
The surrender of the city of Manila by Spain to the United States was arranged through the Belgian consul, M. Andre. There was no real fighting, no resistance except the display of a white flag after firing of a few shots to save the delicate honor of the Castilians. Orders were issued not to allow Filipino troops into the city which was relayed by General Anderson to Aguinaldo. But inspite of efforts by the Americans to block entry points to the city, Filipino troops successfully join the assault by way of Sta. Ana, and took possession of Paco and Malate. Alarmed at the presence of Filipino troops, American troops encircle the Filipinos to prevent any further advance or action, prompting General Anderson to issue this stern warning to Aguinaldo: "Unless your troops are withdrawn beyond the city's defences by Thursday, the fifteenth instant, I shall be compelled to resort to forcible action." Conflict is averted on account of the good relations among U.S. General Anderson, Filipino Generals Ricarte and Noriel. (Storey, 59).

General Merritt receives cable that a Peace Protocol was signed in Washington D.C. between the United States and Spain which gives the United States right to occupy the city, the bay and the harbor. This cable did not arrive on time and city was taken force of arms rather than as a consequence of the Peace Protocol of August 12.
[Since the capture of Manila came about after the signing of the peace protocol Spanish authorities considered the capitulation illegal, which meant Manila should have been restored back to Spain. This became a contentious issue at the October peace conference in Paris, which probably the reason why the American commissioners had to offer a $20 million “purchase” alternative.]

U.S. President McKinley, through Sec Allen, sends a cable to Dewey requesting information on the desirability of several islands, the character of the population, coal and other mineral deposits, their harbor and commercial advantages. (Storey, 42; KalawM[1], 229, KalawM[2], 26)

August 14, 1898
U.S. General Merritt formally advices Aguinaldo to withdraw troops from the City. He cables Washington to the effect that Aguinaldo demands joint occupation of the City and requests advice on how far he shall go in enforcing the order to exclude of insurgents' troops.

August 15, 1898
Buencamino, Legarda, Araneta and Sandico representing Aguinaldo meet with General Anderson and later with General Merritt to discuss Filipino troops withdrawal. The representatives say Filipino troops will withdraw from the City if they are assured of being given the same position assuming the United States allows Spain to retain the Philippines. General Merritt says he cannot make the pledge but the Filipinos can rely on American honor that what they ask will be granted.

August 17, 1898
General Merritt issues a proclamation establishing a military occupation government in the city of Manila. (Brooks, 5)
[This proclamation implemented President McKinley's May 19, 1898 preliminary instructions of to the Secretary of War.]

Mabini writes to Buencamino saying that the conflict with the United States is coming sooner or later and “we will gain nothing by asking favors of them which in reality are our rights, but shall maintain them as long as we are able to, confiding in justice and Providence.” (Spooner, 25)

Calderon accompanies a party composed of Antonio Luna, Leon Maria Guerrero, Jose Torres Bugallon, Pedro Paterno and many others, to Cavite to pay their respect to Aguinaldo. [Luna was appointed by Aguinaldo as Director of War on 26th of September.]

August 18, 1898
General Merritt receives the following reply from Washington: "...that there must be no joint occupation of the city, bay and harbor with insurgents; that they and all others must recognize the military occupation and authority of the United States and the cessation of hostilities proclaimed by the President."

August 21, 1898
General Otis arrives with the U.S. Fourth Expeditionary Forces consisting of 4,000 troops; to replace General Merritt, who was ordered to proceed to Paris to act as one of the commissioners at the Paris peace conference between the United States and Spain.

August 24, 1898
Aguinaldo receives a letter from General Merritt asking for withdrawal of Filipino troops beyond the city limits as shown on a map accompanying the letter.

August 26, 1898
Felipe Agoncillo, the head of the Filipino junta in Hong Kong, is instructed to proceed to Washington to present the case for the Filipinos, with specific instructions to keep in mind that the policy of the Philippine government is one of absolute independence.

August 27, 1898
Aguinaldo replies to General Merritt specifying the proposed territorial limits of Filipino troops locations, but insisting that the request for troops withdrawal should be made in writing and on condition that Admiral Dewey shall continue to allow free navigation of Filipino army steamers at Manila Bay, and furthermore, that the Filipino army shall retire to the city in the event that the United States decide to give the islands back to Spain.

August 27, 1898
General Greene submits a report to the United States Peace Commission in Paris essentially saying anarchy will ensue if the United States leaves the islands to Spain. That Filipinos are unfit to govern and recommends that the United States keep the islands.

The steamer Abby, alias Pasig, flying the American flag, having received American registry at Canton, China, arrives at Batangas. It is commanded by an American, and delivers to the Filipino army about 500 rifles, 500,000 rounds of ammunition, two Maxim guns, and 2000 rounds of Maxim ammunition. Accompanying the expedition is another American whose purpose is to instruct the Filipino in the use of the rapid-firing guns.
[Admiral Dewey, through information received from Consul General Wildman, sent the McCulloch to Batangas in September, and seized the Abby, but not until her cargo was landed.](Wildman, 162-163)

August 29, 1898
Major Franks S. Bournes submits a report to the United States Peace Commission detailing the natural resources and principal products of the major islands and concluded that "Taken as a whole, the Philippine Islands are as rich and productive islands, with as good climate and as good natural advantages, as are to be found anywhere in the tropics."

A report of J.F. Bell, Major of Engineers In Charge, addressed to General Merritt, and annexed to the documents forwarded to the United States Peace Commissioners in Paris, essentially downplays the successes of Aguinaldo, saying his support is dwindling and most of the people around him, except for a few, are either uneducated, incapable and lacks experience. The report also claims that most of the educated natives and majority of the inhabitants of Manila are against the insurrection and welcomes annexation of the islands by the United States. Obviously the report is biased, similar to the report of General Greene, and is probably orchestrated and intended to sway the judgment of the Peace Commissioners in favor of the United States retaining the islands.

General E. S. Otis replaces General W. Merritt.

August 30, 1898
Santa Cruz, Laguna is surrendered to Filipino troops; Ilocos provinces, including Abra, pass to the Philippine government.

August 31, 1898
General Otis, who replaced General Merritt, telegraphs Aguinaldo in Cavite asking for more time to study his August 27th letter and promises to answer within a few days.

August 31, 1898
Col Tirona's expeditionary force takes Tuguegarao.

Aguinaldo moves his headquarters from Bacoor, Cavite to Malolos, Bulacan.

September ??, 1898
The Romblon group: Romblon, Tablas and Sibuyan are taken over by Visayan soldiers aided by a few Tagalog soldiers from Luzon.

September ??, 1898
Two navy men from Admiral Dewey's squadron, Messrs. Sargent and Wilcox, tour northern Luzon for two months.
[Their report which Admiral Dewey himself described as "the most complete and reliable information obtainable in regard to the present state of northern part of Luzon" was forwarded to Mr. Long, the Secretary of the Navy and reported in Senate Document 196, 56th U.S. Congress, 1st Session, bearing the date February 26, 1900, praises the government of Aguinaldo as follows: "As a tribute to the efficiency of Aguinaldo's government and the law abiding character of his subjects I offer the fact that Mr. Wilcox and I pursued our journey through in perfect security and returned to Manila with only the most pleasing recollections of the quiet and orderly life which we find the natives to be leading under the new regime." The travellers also had an opportunity to witness some of the ceremonies inaugurating a civil government in Cagayan Province which they described as follows: "The Presidentes of all the towns in the Province were all present at the ceremony. ... Colonel Tirona made a shor t speech. ... He then handed the staff of the office to the man who had been elected governor of the Province. This officer also made a speech in which he thanked the military forces and assured them that the work they had begun would be perpetuated by the people, where every man, woman and child stood ready to take up arms to defend their newly won liberty and to resist with the last drop of their blood the attempt of any nation whatever to bring them back to their former state of dependence. He then knelt, placed his hand on an open Bible and took the oath of office. There is variety of feeling among Filipinos in regard to the debt of gratitude they owe the United States. In every town we found men who said that our nation had saved them from slavery and others who claimed that without our interference their independence would have been recognized before this time. On one point they were united, however, viz. that whatever our government had done for them, it has not gained the right to annex them." ] (Storey, 61-62)

September 08, 1898
General Otis answers Aguinaldo's August 27th letter explaining why the joint occupation of the city is not possible, that is, Aguinaldo does not represent a belligerent recognized under international law, and that the possession of the United States of the city of Manila is in accordance with treaty between belligerents. Otis also assumed that Admiral Dewey will allow free navigation of Filipino army ships for as long as these ships do not assail the sovereignty of the United States. At the end of the letter, Otis demands evacuation of Filipino troops from the entire city of Manila, including its suburbs and defenses, not later than the 15th of the month under threat of forcible action if Aguinaldo refuses.

September 10, 1898
A trooper of the 13th Minnesota fired and killed a native. Filipinos are surly and agitated.

September 12, 1898
General Vicente Lukban of the Philippine army takes Daet from the Spaniards and subsequently organizes a revolutionary government in the province. He eventually moved to Catbalogan, Samar with 100 riflemen to organize the resistance against the Americans.

Aguinaldo sends a three-man commission to General Otis asking for withdrawal of the September 8th letter, and in its place, for him to write a letter request for Filipino troops to withdraw without the threat of the use of force. Otis says Aguinaldo does not want to lose face to his officers and needs the new letter so he can show that the withdrawal is designed to avoid contact between the two forces and avert any possible conflict. Otis refuses to withdraw the September 8th letter, but agreed to write the request for withdrawal of troops without any mention of a threat of use of force.

September 14, 1898
Colonel Tirona's expeditionary forces take Ilagan and Bayombong. Batanes capitulates to another Filipino expeditionary force under Major Delfin Esquivel.

Filipino troops numbering 4,000 withdraw from the city of Manila, its suburbs and defenses.
[“At 5:30, out of the Calle Real in Ermita appeared an officer on a fiery native pony. He was Colonel Callais (Cailles), one of the ablest officers in the entire insurgent army, ...Close at tle heels of his pony came the magnificent Pasig band, composed entirely of native musicians and numbering ninety pieces. Every man was in uniform and the piece they played was a stirring wild native march that set the horses to prancing and everyone who listened tingling with enthusiasm. Then came the troops, hundreds and hundreds of them, all in blue drilling and every man with his rifle. ...Over in Tondo and in Paco and in Samipaloc and in the other suburbs where the insurgents had massed this scene was being repeated, although not with such a show nor with so many bands. In the twenty four hours of September 14 over four thousand armed insurgent marched out of the city ...” (White, 180-184)]

September 15, 1898
The first congress of the newly independent Philippines is convened with 37 appointed and 13 elected delegates, and electing the following officers: Pedro Paterno, President; Benito Legarda, Vice President; Gregorio Araneta and Pablo Ocampo, Secretaries. (Storey, 53)

September 16, 1898
In his preliminary instructions to the peace commissioners who are to meet with their Spanish counterparts in Paris on October 1st, President McKinleys says: “...The Philippines stand upon a different basis... the United States cannot accept less than the cession in full right and sovereignty of the Island of Luzon. It is desirable, however, that the United States shall acquire the right of entry for vessels and merchandise belonging to citizens of the United States into such ports of the Philippines as are not ceded to the United States, upon terms of equal favor with Spanish ships and merchandise, both in relation to port and customs charges and rates of trade and commerce, together with other rights of protection and trade.” (Olcott, 96; KalawM[2], 30)
[This instruction is a departure from the provision of the August 12 peace protocol which only give the United States the right to hold the bay, harbor and occupy the city of Manila]

September 18, 1898
Acting Secretary Allen cables Admiral Dewey to restrain insurgents hostilities towards Spaniards.

September 21, 1898
Dr. Pardo de Tavera, in his letter to General Otis says "The number of those who advocate a Philippine Republic under the protectorate of the United States is growing greater every day. I am the most ardent defender of that idea and its principal propagandist."
[But after the beginning of hostilities, when it was found out that sooner or later the Filipinos would have to succumb to American rule, the conservatives also began to modify the plan under which they would accept American rule and guidance.] (KalawM[1], 258)

September 22, 1898
The Camarines provinces revolt, set up a republic and notify Aguinaldo of their adhesion to the Philippine republic.

September 23, 1898
By instructions of Dewey, the McCulloch, the same gunboat that brought Aguinaldo from Hongkong, proceeds to the port of Batangas to verify a report that the American steamer Abby which is totally manned by Filipinos, has discharged cargoes of arms and ammunitions. Investigation reveals that the steamer has made one similar voyage before. The steamer was seized and brought to Manila despite the intercession of Filipino officials.

September 26, 1898
Two additional cabinet portfolios are created by Aguinaldo: Justice, which was given to Gregorio Araneta, and Promotion, to Felipe Buencamino.

General Antonio Luna, the only Filipino General who had formal military training in Europe, is appointed Director of War by Aguinaldo.
[In 1896, Luna declined the offer of Aguinaldo to become the Director of War, with the rank of Brigade General. He also previously refused Bonifacio's invitation to join the revolution.]

September 27, 1898
Agoncillo arrives in Washington from Hong Kong and arranges an audience with U.S. President McKinley.

September 28, 1898
The Philippine Congress ratifies the proclamation of the independence of the Philippines.

October ??, 1898
The Manila press continues to sow seeds of hatred against Filipino soldiers, which perhaps explained why the American soldiers loathed the Filipinos too much.

October ??, 1898
Aguinaldo is asked by General Otis to withdraw his troops farther from Manila.

October ??, 1898
Admiral Dewey's men commence a systematic ill treatment of Filipino troops at sea. Dewey seizes Filipino army vessels bearing Filipino flags that regularly ply Manila bay transporting and supplying Filipino troops. In the early days of the loose alliance, Dewey's ships aided Filipino steamers and U.S. Navy men saluted such vessels whenever they pass along American ships.

October 1, 1898
Agoncillo, with the help of U.S. General F. V. Greene who had a brief stint in the Philippines, obtains an audience with U.S. President McKinley, but is accepted as a private citizen and not as a representative of the government of the newly established Filipino republic. Agoncillo presented a memorial which contains the expression of Filipino aspirations towards independence and self-government, which was not officially received by the Secretary of State. Nothing is accomplished in his mission, and Agoncillo decides to proceed to Paris to present the case of the Filipinos before the peace commissioners of Spain and the United States.
[In his testimony to the U.S. Senate, Buencamino says Aguinaldo received a telegram from Agoncillo saying he was not received by President McKinley and that McKinley and the American Congress would deceive the Filipinos, and advised that preparations for war be made. The preparations were to organize the army through General Luna and collect 40,000 troops, three engineering corps and four cavalry troops; organize volunteer corp in Manila to assist the army on the day of the outbreak of hostilities and place the Americans between two fires. Secret preparations were made to smuggle a great number of rifles into Manila. General Otis discovered the secret preparations and ordered all houses searched and found 500 rifles, although 1,600 more rifles were hidden. Buencamino theorized that General Otis pre-empted Luna and gave the orders to attack on February 4, 1899. (Buencamino, 2 and 57)]

The peace commissioners of the United States and Spain come together in Paris to put the terms of the August 12, 1898 protocol into the form of a treaty for ratification. (Brooks, 5)

October 2, 1898
The newspaper, New York Herald, publishes an interview with General Merritt who gave favorable impressions about the Filipinos, but refuses to acknowledge that an alliance with the Americans existed.

October 4, 1898
Benito Legarda presents a plan to sell government bonds to support the new government.

October 17, 1898
Aguinaldo issues a decree levying customs duties: 5% ad valorem on imports, 15% ad valorem on exports and 5% ad valorem on coastwise trade. At this time, the Philippine government controls all ports in the country, except the port of Manila.

October 18, 1898
Philippine Congress enacts a law to sell government bonds - 40-year, 6%, $20 million Mexican dollars, of which $5 million was floated with $388,650 actually sold.

Philippine Congress also enacts a law to issue paper money to the value of $3 million Mexican dollars.

October 19, 1898
The Literaria Universidad de Filipinas is created that will offer courses in law, medicine, pharmacy, including doctorate degrees. (Guevara, 49)

October 22, 1898
Aguinaldo writes General Otis requesting for a formal conference in order to harmonize the interest of the two peoples, so that the suspicion of the Filipinos regarding the true intention of the United States will disappear. (KalawM[1], 167)

October 24, 1898
The Institucion Burgos is created by Aguinaldo's decree to provide secondary education. (Guevara, 57)

October 25, 1898
President McKinley writes to peace commissioner Judge Day and gives a hint on his preference to take the whole archipelago when he said: “The interdependency of the several islands, their close relations with Luzon, the very grave problem of what will become of the part we do not take, are receiving the thoughtful consideration of the people, and it is my judgment that the well-considered opinion of the majority would be that duty requires we should take the archipelago.” (Olcott, 108)

October 26, 1898
In his cable to Peace Commissioner Day, Mr. Hay advises the Peace Commissioners of President McKinley's final decision to demand the cession of the whole Philippine archipelago. (KalawM[2], 34)


October 31, 1898
The United States peace commissioners in Paris submits the formal demand for the cession of the whole Philippine group. (Everett, 198; KalawM[2], 36)

November ??, 1898
Agoncillo, reporting from the United States, states that the question of Philippine independence will not be taken up in the Paris conference. (KalawM[1], 167)

November 2, 1898
Peace commissioner Mr. day writes President McKinley saying that under international law the United States cannot demand from Spain cession of the Philippine Islands by right of conquest because the surrender of the city of Manila was effected after the signing of the peace protocol ending the Spanish-American war. Instead, the United States, being the victor, can claim compensation for the expenses in the prosecution of the war and the cession of the Philippine Islands can be made part of the payment by Spain. Considering, however, the financial condition of Spain, it is not advisable to press for these demands but to look for other ways to effect the cession of the islands. (Olcott, 113-118)

November 3, 1898
In his letter addressed to General Otis, Aguinaldo makes the following statements: “These priests... have been for a long time the absolute masters of the life, honor and property of the Filipinos. For this reason it is a widely known and notorious fact, recognized by all foreigners who have studied Philippine affairs, that the primary causes of the Philippine revolution were the ecclesiastical corporations, which, taking advantage of the corrupt Spanish government, have robbed the country, preventing progress and liberty. “ (Robinson, 323)

November 4, 1898
The Spanish peace commissioners flatly deny the demand for a cession of the whole Philippine group and claim that the capture of Manila occurred after the signing of the peace protocol of August 12, 1898, and is therefore invalid. (Everett, 198)

November 5, 1898
The town of Silay is taken from Spanish control by the Filipino revolutionaries under Aniceto Lacson and Juan Araneta, having been inspired by a letter from Roque Lopez about the success in Iloilo.

November 6, 1898
Bacolod is surrendered by the Spaniards and the revolutionaries establish the gobierno cantonal de la isla de Negros, half-heartedly adhering to the Malolos government.

November 9, 1898
Masbate and Ticao become districts of the Malolos government.

November 12, 1898
The Negros provisional government invites General Miller of the United States army to provide protection.

November 13, 1898
Secretary Hay telegraphed President McKinley's instructions to the peace commissioners which essentially authorize them to offer Spain $10 to $20 million payment for the cession of the Philippine Islands. (Olcott, 119; KalawM[2], 39)

November 15, 1898
The Filipino Junta Patriotica in Hongkong issues a letter addressed to President McKinley complaining of the shabby treatment given to Filipino revolutionaries by American military officers which were expressed in such actions as denial of a shared occupation of the city of Manila, the restriction on Filipino soldiers entering the city while allowing Spanish soldiers to bear arms, and the seizure of Filipino army steamers and launches. (White, 114-118)

November 17, 1898
The Ilonggos under the leadership of General Martin Delgado set up a provisional government in Santa Barbara as an instrumentality of the Malolos government.
[Several armed expeditions were previously sent by Aguinaldo, one from Cavite to Antique in September under Leandro Fullon, and another from Batangas to Capiz under Ananias Diokno, commander-in-chief of the Filipino Expeditionary Forces to Panay, who was instrumental in unifying the rebel forces in the Visayas. (Fernandez, 134)]

November 19, 1898
Peace Commissioner Day telegraphs President McKinley to inform him of the difficulty that the conference is encountering in view of the position of the Spanish commissioners that the sovereignty over the Philippine Islands is non-negotiable; that Spain might bring the issue up to arbitration while the United States might already make a final offer to pay Spain $20 million for the cession of the Philippine Islands. (Olcott, 119-122)

November 21, 1898
The United States peace commissioners presents a final proposition to pay Spain $20 million for the cession of the Philippines, among several other concessions. (Everett, 201)

November 29, 1898
Spain finally submits to what they call the “law of the victor” and accepts United States' demand for cession of the Philippine islands in exchange for a $20 million consideration, knowing that the proposal admitted of no other alternative, and that they must accept it or break off the negotiations, in which case hostilities might be renewed. (Everett, 202; KalawM[2], 41)

After settling the issue of separation of church and state in the proposed constitution of the Philippine republic, Calderon submits draft to President Aguinaldo for approval, in the hope that the republic is proclaimed before the signing of the Treaty of Paris. (Fernandez, 104)
[Calderon was disappointed that Aguinaldo did not immediately take action. At that time Mabini must have cautioned Aguinaldo to make sure that the powers of the executive is not clipped by congress in the proposed constitution. The constitution was eventually proclaimed effective on January 22, 1899.]

November 30, 1898
Aguinaldo issues a decree providing for sale of government bonds in the nature of a 40-year, 6%, $5 million Mexican dollars to support the war effort and the expenditure requirements of government. (Guevara, 73)

November ??, 1898
La Independencia, a newspaper published in Manila by General Antonio Luna, reacting to the $20 million paid by the United States to Spain for the cession of the Philippines to the United States, states that "people are not to be bought and sold like horses and houses. If the aim has been to abolish the traffic in Negroes because it meant the sale of persons, why is there still maintained the sale of countries with inhabitants?"


December ??, 1898
Filipino troops take control of Puerto Princesa, Palawan.

December ??, 1898
In his report to Washington, General Otis says: "Thus, in December, 1898, in the northern and southeastern Luzon, in (the island) of Mindoro, Samar, Leyte, Panay and even in coast of Mindanao and in some of the smaller islands, the aggressive Tagalog, present in person, whether civilian or soldier, supreme in authority." (Storey, 60)

December 7, 1898
Otis cables Washington stating that “conditions were improving and that there were signs of revolutionary disintegration, and that he “had conferred with a number of members of the revolutionary government and that the most of them would favor peaceful submission to the United States authority.” (KalawM[1], 168)

December 10, 1898
The treaty of peace is signed by the commissioners of Spain and United States in Paris. (Everett, 209)
[Agoncillo, the designated representative of the Filipino government, who left Washington D.C. without success in his mission, tried to gain access into the treaty deliberations, but is denied admission on the basis that neither the United States nor Spain recognizes the new Filipino government. All he accomplished was the submission of his protest to the peace commissioners through the help of General F.V. Greene, the same American officer who helped him get an audience with President McKinley in Washington.]

December 12, 1898
Felipe Agoncillo files an official protest, stating that the treaty of peace recently entered into "cannot be accepted as binding by my government inasmuch as the Commission did not hear the Filipino people or admit them into its deliberations, when they have the indisputable right to intervene in all that might affect their future life." (KalawM[1], 232)

December 14, 1898
General Otis cables Washington that a petition has been received from certain businessmen of Iloilo, asking for American protection there, and that the Spanish commander of the Iloilo garrison intends to evacuate the city and withdraw to Zamboanga, offering to turn over the city to the Americans. (PIS-V6NO1, 7)

December 21, 1898
U.S. President McKinley issues his benevolent assimilation proclamation with instructions to General Otis to effect the administration of United States sovereignty over the entire Philippine archipelago. (KalawM[1], 168)
[In effect, President McKinley already claimed sovereignty over the Philippine Islands even before the ratification of the Treaty of Paris by the U.S. Senate. Legally, the August 12, 1898 Peace Protocol was still in force and the United States had no right to claim such sovereignty or wage war on the Filipinos. What the instructions also achieved for the Filipinos was an authoritative indication that the direction of the policy of Washington was not to recognize the independence of the Philippines. This action of President McKinley was taken as a declaration of war on the Filipinos without authority from the U.S. Senate. On this point an observer said: "This proclamation drove the Filipinos into war against the United States. There was nothing left for them to do unless they consented to national enslavement. It was not only natural but right that they should go to war against us. Our Chief Man had notified them by arbitrary decree that if they did not submit to the usurped authority of the United States-'the absolute domain of military authority,' he called it-they would be forced into submission by shell and grapeshot. 'Honest submission,' or death: they had their choice. 'Honest submission,, or 'forcible annexation.' All who did not submit to the proclamation of the tyrant were to be 'brought within the lawful rule we have assumed, with firmness if need be.' On the 5th of February that firmness began to be applied and 4000 heroic Filipinos who could not honestly submit to the self-made despot were killed. The man who killed them was William McKinley. The death of each one of them was groundless manslaughter, McKinley was their murderer. He was their self-condemned murderer, convicted by his own words of one year before. 'I speak not of forcible annexation, because that is not to be thought of, and under our code of 1iorality that would be criminal aggression.'"(Swift, 40)

December 23, 1898
Spanish General Diego de los Rios, in the presence of his staff, the naval commanders and the foreign consuls, formally surrenders the town to the city mayor (Vicente Gay) prior to his evacuation of Panay Island. (Foreman, 511)

December 24, 1898
The revolutionists led by General Martin Delgado occupies the city of Iloilo. “... they entered the city in the most perfect order, scattered their forces in various public buildings, policed the streets and maintained the peace and quiet of the town in a manner that would have done credit to a most highly civilized nation. There was no looting, no insult to men or women, no robbery, no drunkenness or disorder..." (Kimball, 3)

Washington replies to General Otis to occupy the city of Iloilo, specifying that there should be no conflict with the insurgents. (PIS-V6NO1, 7)

December 26, 1898
The Malolos congress adjourns.

December 27, 1898
The Cebuanos established a government in agreement with the government of Aguinaldo after Spanish Governor Montero abandoned the city and sought refuge in Zamboanga. The following were constituted officers of the Cebu revolutionary government: Luis Flores, President and Commander-in-Chief; Julio Llorente, Vice President; General Arcadio Maxilom, Commissioner of Police, Pablo Mejia, Treasurer-General; Miguel Logarta, Minister of Justice and Leoncio Alburo, Secretary to the Council.

December 28, 1898
U.S. General Marcus Miller with 2,500 troops under orders by General Otis to occupy the city of Iloilo is refused disembarcation by Filipino troops, without prior authorization from the Malolos government.
[One result of this Iloilo episode was the untimely exposure of the true intent of the United States – the annexation of the Philippine islands, which was very evident from the official version of the McKinley proclamation that General Miller presented to the Ilonggos, which was forwarded to Aguinaldo by Roque Lopez, the Ilonggo President. Aguinaldo, who held a toned down version provided by General Otis, realized that the United States was not going to support Philippine independence after all.]

December 29, 1898
Pres. McKinley's defining policy is received by General Otis, which included specific instruction to Otis not to forced the Iloilo occupation if it will result in hostilities.
[While the Treaty of Paris had been signed by representatives of both Spain and the United States, the treaty was not effective until ratified by the United States Senate. McKinley's earlier mandate to extend American sovereignty over all of the Philippine islands could be implemented only if war was commenced against the Filipinos or they surrendered voluntarily the territories they held. McKinley was very careful that the U.S. Military did not take an action that might be viewed at home as “criminal aggression” and jeopardize his chances of reelection.]

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