Monday, December 8, 2008

Year 1903

February 25, 1903
Apolinario Mabini, after finally taking the oath of allegiance to the United States, together with several other prisoners, return to Manila from exile in Guam. In a manifesto to the people he explains his action in the following words: "When the country went to war, I believed that my duty was to be by her side and to help her suffer until the end; now that she feels helpless to continue fighting for her rights, I believe that I should also be by her side, in order to tell her that she should not be discouraged, but should have more confidence in herself, in justice and in her future." (KalawM[1], 285)

March 27, 1903
General Luciano San Miguel, the last holdout general of the Filipino Republican Army, is killed in a battle with the Constabulary at Coral-na-bato in what is now Rizal province. His death and the subsequent round up of the rest of the members of the Katipunan and its leaders have brought the resistance in the province of Rizal to an end. (Khaki[1], 24)
[San Miguel was one of the early leaders of the revolution who started as a katipunero in the Magdiwang faction of Mariano Alvarez in San Francisco de Malabon, Cavite.]

April ??, 1903
Macario Sakay issues a manifesto stating that Filipinos have a fundamental right to fight for independence. By this time, the Americans have made it a policy that a mere statement about Philippine independence is already a crime.

May 13, 1903
Apolinario Mabini dies of cholera during an epidemic in Manila.

July 31, 1903
The Hongkong Junta is officially dissolved with the publication of a notice published in El Renacimiento. (KalawM[1], 257)
[Agoncillo and Apacible claimed that the failure of their mission was due to the following facts: (1) The statements of Tavera and Legarda before the Schurman Commission that there were only a few ambitious persons who desired independence and that it was necessary to have the Philippines annexed to the United States because the people were not ready to enjoy self-government; (2) the celebration initiated by Paterno in commemoration of the amnesty proclamation; (3) the establishment of the Federal Party which placed itself unconditionally at the service of the American government, composed as it was by the Imperialists, and its petition for annexation; (4) the telegram from Buencamino to McKinley offering to organize five thousand Filipino soldier to fight and annihilate the insurgents who continued in arms; (5) Aguinaldo's oath of allegiance recognizing American sovereignty and counselling the people to accept peace.]

December ??, 1903
General Artemio Ricarte secretly arrives in Manila from Hong Kong on board the steamship Yuensang where he served as a crew, and starts to recruit former active members of the revolution for his planned uprising. (Ricarte, Appendix XXV)
[Ricarte and Apolinario Mabini were released in February, 1903 from their prison-exile in Guam as a result of a general amnesty proclaimed by the Americans and on the way home on board the transport Thomas, the two were urged to take the oath of allegiance to the United States. Mabini, being ill, opted to do so, but Ricarte refused and was deported to Hongkong]

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